स्कॉटलैंड

विकिपीडिया से
सीधे इहाँ जाईं: नेविगेशन, खोजीं
स्कॉटलैंड
Alba
झंडा रॉयल स्टैंडर्ड
मोटो: "In My Defens God Me Defend" (स्कॉट्स)
"In my defence God me defend"a
राष्ट्रगान: Variousb
Predominantly "en:Flower of Scotland"
Location of  स्कॉटलैंड  (dark green)– in Europe  (green & dark grey)– in the United Kingdom  (green)
Location of  स्कॉटलैंड  (dark green)

– in Europe  (green & dark grey)
– in the United Kingdom  (green)

Status
राजधानी एडिनबर्ग
55°57′N 3°11′W / 55.950°N 3.183°W / 55.950; -3.183
सबसे बड़ शहर ग्लासगो
55°51′N 4°16′W / 55.850°N 4.267°W / 55.850; -4.267
Languages अंगरेजी
पहिचानल
भाषाc
नृजातीय समूह (2011)
  • 96.0% White
  • 2.7% Asian
  • 0.7% Black
  • 0.4% Mixed
  • 0.2% Arab
  • 0.1% other[5]
लोग के नाँव
Sovereign state United Kingdom
सरकार Devolved संसदीय बिधायिका, संबैधानिक
राजशाही
e
 •  Monarch एलिजाबेथ II
 •  First Minister en:Nicola Sturgeon
British Government
Secretary of State en:David Mundell
बिधायी संस्था en:Scottish Parliament
निर्माण
 •  Established 9th century (traditionally 843) 
 •  Union with England 1 मई 1707 
 •  Devolution 19 November 1998 
क्षेत्रफल
 •  जमीनी 77,933 किमी2[6]
30,090 वर्ग मील
जनसंख्या
 •  2014 अनुमान 5,347,600[7]
 •  2011 जनगणना 5,313,600[8]
 •  घनत्व 67.5/कि॰मी॰
174.1/वर्ग मील
जी॰डी॰पी॰ (नॉमिनल) 2013 estimate
 •  Total $245.267 बिलियन[9]
(including revenues from
North Sea oil and gas)
 •  Per capita $45,904
करेंसी Pound sterling (GBP)
टाइम जोन GMT (UTC​)
 •  Summer (DST) BST (UTC+1)
तारीख रूप dd/mm/yyyy (AD)
ड्राइविंग left
कालिंग कोड +44
Patron saints
इंटरनेट टी॰ऍल॰डी॰ .scotf
वेबसाइट
www.scotland.org
a. Often shown abbreviated as "In Defens".
b. en:Flower of Scotland, en:Scotland the Brave and en:Scots Wha Hae have been used in lieu of an official anthem (see en:National anthem of Scotland).
c. Both Scots and Scottish Gaelic are officially recognised as en:regional languages under the en:European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages.[10] Under the Gaelic Language (Scotland) Act 2005, the Bòrd na Gàidhlig is tasked with securing Gaelic as an official language of Scotland that commands "equal respect" with English.[11] British Sign Language is also officially recognised in Scotland under the en:British Sign Language (Scotland) Act 2015.[12]
d. Historically, the use of "Scotch" as an adjective comparable to "Scottish" or "Scots" was commonplace, particularly outside Scotland. Today, however, the term is used to describe products of Scotland (usually food or drink-related).
e. The head of state of the United Kingdom is the monarch (currently Queen Elizabeth II, since 1952). Scotland has limited self-government within the United Kingdom as well as representation in the UK Parliament. It is also a UK electoral region for the en:European Parliament. Certain executive and legislative powers have been devolved to, respectively, the en:Scottish Government and the en:Scottish Parliament at Holyrood in Edinburgh.
f. .scot is not a ccTLD, but a gTLD, open to use by all people in Scotland and related to Scotland. .uk and .eu, as part of the en:United Kingdom and en:European Union, are also used. en:ISO 3166-1 is GB, but .gb is unused.

स्कॉटलैंड (अंगरेजी: Scotland) एगो देस बा जवन यूनाइटेड किंगडम के हिस्सा बा आ एकरे मुख्य दीप ग्रेट ब्रिटेन के उत्तरी हिस्सा कभर करे ला।[13][14][15] एकर सीमा, दक्खिन ओर इंग्लैण्ड के साथ बा, बाकी ई पुरा अटलांटिक महासागर से घेराइल बाते, पुरुब ओर नॉर्थ सागरनॉर्थ चैनलआयरिश सागर दक्खिन-पच्छिम में। मेन जमीनी हिस्सा के आलावा एह देस में करीब 790 गो दीप बाड़ें,[16] जवना में नॉर्दर्न दीपहेब्राइड्स प्रमुख बाड़ें।

एडिनबर्ग, देस के राजधानी आ दूसरा सभसे बड़हन शहर, अठारहवीं सदी में स्कॉटिश पुनर्जागरण के धुरी रहल जौना से कामर्स, बिद्या, आ उद्योग के क्षेत्र में स्कॉटलैंड यूरोप के एक ठो पावरहाउस बन गइल। ग्लासगो, स्कॉटलैंड के सभसे बड़हन शहर,[17] दुनिया के एगो बहुत प्रमुख उद्योगी नगर रहि चुकल बा, वर्तमान में ई ग्रेटर ग्लासगो कोनर्बेशन के सेंटर मे बा। स्कॉटलैंड के पानी के हिस्सा में उत्तरी अटलांटिक आ नॉर्थ सागर के काफ़ी हिस्सा आवेला[18] जहाँ भारी मात्रा में तेल भंडार बाटे। एही से स्कॉटलैंड के तीसरा सभसे बड़हन शहर, एबरडीन, यूरोप के पेट्रोलियम राजधानी कहल जाला।[19]

संदर्भ[संपादन]

  1. "St Andrew—Quick Facts"; Scotland. org—The Official Online Gateway; ओरिजिनल से 11 November 2007 के पुरालेखित; पहुँचतिथी 2 December 2007. 
  2. "St Andrew"; Catholic Online; पहुँचतिथी 15 November 2011. 
  3. "St Margaret of Scotland"; Catholic Online; पहुँचतिथी 15 November 2011. 
    "Patron saints"; Catholic Online; पहुँचतिथी 15 November 2011. 
  4. "St Columba"; Catholic Online; पहुँचतिथी 15 November 2011. 
  5. "Ethnic groups, Scotland, 2001 and 2011"; The Scottish Government; 2013; पहुँचतिथी 9 December 2013. 
  6. Region and Country Profiles, Key Statistics and Profiles, October 2013, ONS. Retrieved 9 August 2015.
  7. "Scotland's Population at its Highest Ever"; National Records of Scotland; 30 अप्रैल 2015; पहुँचतिथी 12 फरवरी 2015. 
  8. "Population estimates by sex, age and administrative area, Scotland, 2011 and 2012"; National Records of Scotland; 8 August 2013; पहुँचतिथी 8 August 2013. 
  9. Scottish Government; "Key Economy Statistics"; पहुँचतिथी 22 August 2014. 
  10. "European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages"; Scottish Government; पहुँचतिथी 23 October 2011. 
  11. Macleod, Angus "Gaelic given official status" (22 अप्रैल 2005) en:The Times. London. Retrieved 2 August 2007.
  12. "Scotland becomes first part of UK to recognise signing for deaf as official language"; Herald Scotland; 2015; पहुँचतिथी 17 जनवरी 2016. 
  13. "The Countries of the UK"; Office for National Statistics; पहुँचतिथी 24 June 2012. 
  14. "Countries within a country"; 10 Downing Street; ओरिजिनल से 16 अप्रैल 2010 के पुरालेखित; पहुँचतिथी 24 August 2008; The United Kingdom is made up of four countries: England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland 
  15. "ISO 3166-2 Newsletter Date: 28 November 2007 No I-9. "Changes in the list of subdivision names and code elements" (Page 11)" (PDF); International Organization for Standardization codes for the representation of names of countries and their subdivisions – Part 2: Country subdivision codes; पहुँचतिथी 31 मई 2008; SCT Scotland country 
  16. "Scottish Executive Resources" (PDF); Scotland in Short; Scottish Executive; 17 फरवरी 2007; पहुँचतिथी 14 September 2006. 
  17. "A quick guide to glasgow"; Glasgow City Centre; पहुँचतिथी 20 June 2012. 
  18. The Scottish Adjacent Waters Boundaries Order; London: The Stationery Office Limited; 1999; ISBN 0-11-059052-X; पहुँचतिथी 20 September 2007. 
  19. "Our City"; Aberdeen City Council; ओरिजिनल से 22 September 2010 के पुरालेखित; पहुँचतिथी 1 December 2009; Aberdeen's buoyant modern economy – is fuelled by the oil industry, earning the city its epithet as 'Oil Capital of Europe' 

अउरी पढ़े खातिर[संपादन]

  • Devine, T. M. [1999] (2000). The Scottish Nation 1700–2000 (New Ed. edition). London:Penguin. ISBN 0-14-023004-1
  • Donnachie, Ian and George Hewitt. Dictionary of Scottish History. (2001). 384 pp.
  • Keay, John, and Julia Keay. Collins Encyclopedia of Scotland (2nd ed. 2001), 1101pp; 4000 articles; emphasis on history
  • Koch, J. T. Celtic Culture: a Historical Encyclopedia (ABC-CLIO, 2006), ISBN 1-85109-440-7, 999pp
  • Tabraham, Chris, and Colin Baxter. The Illustrated History of Scotland (2004) excerpt and text search
  • Trevor-Roper, Hugh, The Invention of Scotland: Myth and History, Yale, 2008, ISBN 0-300-13686-2
  • Watson, Fiona, Scotland; From Prehistory to the Present. Tempus, 2003. 286 pp.
  • Wilson, Neil. Lonely Planet Scotland (2013) excerpt and text search
  • Wormald, Jenny, The New History of Scotland (2005) excerpt and text search

स्पेशलाइज मोनोग्राफ[संपादन]

  • Brown, Dauvit, (1999) Anglo-French acculturation and the Irish element in Scottish Identity in Smith, Brendan (ed.), Insular Responses to Medieval European Change, Cambridge University Press, pp. 135–53
  • Brown, Michael (2004) The Wars of Scotland, 1214–1371, Edinburgh University Press., pp. 157–254
  • Dumville, David N. (2001); "St Cathróe of Metz and the Hagiography of Exoticism"; Irish Hagiography: Saints and Scholars; Dublin: Four Courts Press; pp. 172–176; ISBN 978-1-85182-486-1. 
  • Flom, George Tobias. Scandinavian influence on Southern Lowland Scotch. A Contribution to the Study of the Linguistic Relations of English and Scandinavian (Columbia University Press, New York. 1900)
  • Herbert, Maire (2000); "Rí Érenn, Rí Alban, kingship and identity in the ninth and tenth centuries"; भाषा: Simon Taylor (ed.); Kings, Clerics and Chronicles in Scotland, 500–1297; Dublin: Four Courts Press; pp. 63–72; ISBN 1-85182-516-9. 
  • MacLeod, Wilson (2004) Divided Gaels: Gaelic Cultural Identities in Scotland and Ireland: c.1200–1650. Oxford University Press.
  • Pope, Robert (ed.), Religion and National Identity: Wales and Scotland, c.1700–2000 (University of Wales Press, 2001)
  • Sharp, L. W. The Expansion of the English Language in Scotland, (Cambridge University PhD thesis, 1927), pp. 102–325;

बाहरी कड़ी[संपादन]