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मदद:IPA/Standard German

विकिपीडिया से
(मदद:IPA for German से अनुप्रेषित)

The charts below show the way International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents German language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.

See Standard German phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of German. For a list of common pronunciation errors, see Anglophone pronunciation of foreign languages § German. For information on how to convert spelling to pronunciation, see German orthography § Grapheme-to-phoneme correspondences.

जर्मनी ऑस्ट्रिया स्विट्जरलैंड Examples English approximation
b bei[1] ball
ç ich, durch; China (DE) hue
d dann[1] done
f für, von fuss
ɡ gut[1] guest
h hat hut
j Jahr yard
k kann, Tag,[2] cremen cold
l Leben last
Mantel bottle
m Mann must
Atem rhythm
n Name not
beiden suddenly
ŋ lang long
p Person, ab[2] puck
pf Pfeffer roughly like cupful
ʁ r reden[3] DE: French rouge
AT, CH: red (Scottish)
s lassen, Haus, groß fast
ʃ schon, Stadt shall
t Tag, und[2] tall
ts Zeit, Platz cats
Matsch match
v was[1] vanish
x nach loch (no lock–loch merger)
z Sie, diese[1] hose
ʔ beamtet[4]
the glottal stops in uh-oh!
Non-native consonants
Dschungel[1][5] jungle
ʒ Genie[1][5] pleasure
ˈ Bahnhofstraße
as in battleship /ˈbætəlˌʃɪp/
जर्मनी ऑस्ट्रिया स्विट्जरलैंड Examples English approximation
a alles[6] father, but rather short
aber, sah[6] father, but rather long
ɛ Ende, hätte bet
ɛː spät, wählen[7] bed
eben, gehen mate
ɪ ist, bitte sit
liebe, Berlin seed
ɔ Osten, kommen RP lot, American law
oder, hohe RP law
œ öffnen somewhat like cut or RP hurt
øː Österreich somewhat like RP bird or French peu
ʊ und push
Hut food
ʏ müssen like hit but with the lips rounded
über somewhat like few
ein high
auf, Haus vow
ɔʏ Euro, Häuser roughly like choice
Reduced vowels
ɐ ər immer[3] DE, AT: sofa
CH: Scottish butter
ə Name ago
ɐ̯ r Uhr[3] DE, AT: sofa
CH: Scottish far
Studie yard
aktuell would
Non-native vowels
ãː Gourmand[8] French Mont Blanc
ɛ̃ː Pointe[8] French Chopin
ɛɪ Mail[9] face
õː Garçon[8] French chanson
ɔʊ Code[9] goat
œ̃ː Parfum[8] French vingt-et-un
œːɐ̯ øːr O2 World[10] roughly like RP bird
Shortened vowels
a Kalender[6][11] father
ã engagieren[8] French chanson
ɛ̃ impair[8] French vingt-et-un
e Element[11] dress
i Italien[11] teach
o originell[11] RP thought
õ fon[8] French Mont Blanc
œ̃ Lundist[8] French vingt-et-un
ø Ökonom[11] somewhat like hurt
u Universität[11] truth
y Psychologie[11] like meet but with the lips rounded

इहो देखल जाय[संपादन करीं]

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  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 In Austrian Standard German and Swiss Standard German, the lenis obstruents /b, d, ɡ, z, dʒ, ʒ/ are voiceless [b̥, d̥, ɡ̊, z̥, d̥ʒ̊, ʒ̊] and are distinguished from /p, t, k, s, tʃ, ʃ/ only by articulatory strength (/v/ is really voiced). The distinction is also retained word-finally. In German Standard German, voiceless [b̥, d̥, ɡ̊, z̥, d̥ʒ̊, ʒ̊] as well as [v̥] occur allophonically after fortis obstruents and, for /b, d, ɡ/, often also word-initially. See fortis and lenis.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 In German Standard German, voiced stops /b, d, ɡ/ are devoiced to [p, t, k] at the end of a syllable.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Pronunciation of /r/ in German varies according to region and speaker. While older prescriptive pronunciation dictionaries allowed only [r], that pronunciation is now found mainly in Switzerland, Bavaria and Austria. In other regions, the uvular pronunciation prevails, mainly as a fricative/approximant [ʁ]. In many regions except for most parts of Switzerland, the /r/ in the syllable coda is vocalized to [ɐ̯] after long vowels or after all vowels, and /ər/ is pronounced as [ɐ]
  4. Initial vowels are usually preceded by [[[
    en:glottal stop|ʔ]]], except in Swiss Standard German.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Many speakers lack the lenis /ʒ/ and replace it with its fortis counterpart /ʃ/ (Hall 2003, p. 42). The same applies to the corresponding lenis /dʒ/, which also tends to be replaced with its fortis counterpart /tʃ/. According to the prescriptive standard, such pronunciations are not correct.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 The Austrian and Swiss pronunciation of /a/ and /aː/ is [ɑ] and [ɑː] (Moosmüller, Schmid & Brandstätter 2015). In some northern German dialects influenced by Low German there may be [æ~a] for /a/ but [ɑː] for /aː/ thus also having a difference in vowel quality not just length. (see e.g. Wierzbicka & Rynkowska 1992, pp. 412–415).
  7. In Northern Germany, /ɛː/ often merges with /eː/ to [[[
    en:close-mid front unrounded vowel|eː]]].
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 The nasal vowels occur in French loans. They are long [ãː, ɛ̃ː, õː, œ̃ː] when stressed and short [ã, ɛ̃, õ, œ̃] when unstressed. In colloquial speech they may be replaced with [aŋ, ɛŋ, ɔŋ, œŋ] irrespective of length, and the [ŋ] in these sequences may optionally be assimilated to the place of articulation of a following consonant, e.g. Ensemble [aŋˈsaŋbl̩] or [anˈsambl̩] for [ãˈsãːbl̩] (Mangold 2005, p. 65).
  9. 9.0 9.1 The diphthongs /ɛɪ, ɔʊ/ occur only in loanwords (mostly from English), such as okay. Depending on the speaker and the region, they may be monophthongized to [eː, oː] (or [e, o] in an unstressed syllable-final position). Thus, the aforementioned word okay can be pronounced as either [ɔʊˈkɛɪ] or [oˈkeː].
  10. [œːɐ̯] or [øːr] is the German rendering of the English NURSE vowel /ɜːr/. It also appears in certain French surnames, e.g. Vasseur (Krech et al. 2009, pp. 64, 142).
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 11.6 [a, e, i, o, ø, u, y], the short versions of the long vowels [aː, eː, iː, oː, øː, uː, yː], are used at the end of unstressed syllables before the accented syllable and occur mainly in loanwords. In native words, the accent is generally on the first syllable, and syllables before the accent other than prepositional prefixes are rare but occasionally occur, e.g. in jedoch [jeˈdɔx], soeben [zoˈʔeːbn̩], vielleicht [fiˈlaɪçt] etc. In casual speech short [e, i, o, ø, u, y] preceding a phonemic consonant (i.e., not a [ʔ]) may be replaced with [ɛ, ɪ, ɔ, œ, ʊ, ʏ], e.g. [jɛˈdɔx], [fɪˈlaɪçt] (Mangold 2005, p. 65).
  • Hall, Christopher (2003) [First published 1992], Modern German pronunciation: An introduction for speakers of English (2nd ed.), Manchester: Manchester University Press, ISBN 0-7190-6689-1
  • Hove, Ingrid (2002). Die Aussprache der Standardsprache in der Schweiz. Tübingen: Niemeyer. ISBN 978-3-484-23147-4.
  • Krech, Eva Maria; Stock, Eberhard; Hirschfeld, Ursula; Anders, Lutz-Christian (2009), Deutsches Aussprachewörterbuch, Berlin, New York: Walter de Gruyter, ISBN 978-3-11-018202-6
  • Mangold, Max (2005), Das Aussprachewörterbuch (6th ed.), Duden, ISBN 978-3411040667
  • Moosmüller, S.; Schmid, C.; Brandstätter, J. (2015). "Standard Austrian German". Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 45 (3): 339–348. doi:10.1017/S0025100315000055.
  • Wierzbicka, Irena; Rynkowska, Teresa (1992), Samouczek języka niemieckiego: kurs wstępny (6th ed.), Warszawa: Wiedza Powszechna, ISBN 83-214-0284-4