↑ 1.01.1Ancient Greek had geminate consonants, pronounced longer than single ones, which may be transcribed by a double consonant letter ⟨ss⟩ or the length symbol ⟨sː⟩. Modern Standard Greek does not have geminate consonants, but some nonstandard dialects do.
↑ 2.02.12.22.126.96.36.199.7In Modern Greek, ⟨κ; γκ, γγ; γ; χ⟩ are pronounced as palatal [c, ɟ, ʝ, ç] before the front vowels [e i], and velar [k, g, ɣ, x] in other cases.
↑ 3.03.13.23.3⟨ζ⟩ represented the cluster [zd] in Classical Attic, but it represents [z] in Modern Greek. In both Ancient and Modern Greek, ⟨σ⟩ is pronounced as voiced [z] before a voiced consonant, and ⟨ξ, ψ⟩ represent [ks ps].
↑ 4.04.14.2In Ancient Greek, a diphthong before a vowel was realised as a vowel and a double semivowel sequence: [jj, ww].
↑ 5.05.15.25.3In Modern Greek, ⟨μπ, ντ, γκ, γγ⟩ are pronounced as prenasalised voiced stops [mb, nd, ɲɟ, ŋɡ] or voiced stops without nasalisation [b, d, ɟ, ɡ].
↑ 6.06.16.2In Modern Greek, ⟨υ⟩, in ⟨αυ ευ ηυ⟩, is pronounced as [f] before a voiceless consonant and [v] otherwise. In Ancient Greek, ⟨αυ ευ ηυ⟩ were diphthongs [au̯ eu̯ ɛːu̯].
↑The rough breathing ⟨῾⟩ represented [h] before a vowel, and the smooth breathing ⟨᾿⟩ represented the absence of [h].
↑ 8.08.18.28.188.8.131.52.78.88.9In Modern Greek, ⟨η, ῃ, ει, ι, οι, υ, υι⟩ all represent [i], but they were pronounced [ɛː, ɛːi̯, eː, ei̯, i(ː) oi̯, y(ː), yi̯] in Ancient Greek. The large number of vowel mergers into [i] is called iotacism.
↑ 9.09.19.29.3In Modern Greek, ⟨ε, αι⟩ represent [e], and ⟨ο, ω⟩ represent [o]. In Ancient Greek, ⟨ε, ο⟩ represented [e, o], ⟨ω⟩ represented [ɔː] and ⟨αι⟩ represented the diphthong[ai̯].
↑ 13.013.113.2In early Ancient Greek, ⟨ᾳ, ῃ, ῳ⟩ were diphthongs, but the second element [i̯] was lost soon after the Classical period, and they merged with ⟨ᾱ, η, ω⟩.
↑The symbols used here for Ancient Greek pitch accent must be added as combining characters in some cases. Place the numeric character reference after the letter that on which the accent is to be put, press "Show preview" and copy the resulting accented character. ́ is the numeric character reference for combining acute tone mark (high tone), ̌ for combining caron (rising tone), ̂ for combining circumflex (falling tone).