मदद:HTML in wikitext

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The MediaWiki software allows use of a subset of HTML5 markup elements for presentation formatting.[1] Many HTML elements may also be included by equivalent wiki markup or templates which are simpler for most editors and less intrusive in the editing window. In normal practice, wiki markup or templates are preferred within articles, but HTML is quite useful for formatting within templates.

Elements[संपादन]

These HTML elements are supported by the MediaWiki software. This section gives a brief overview of the HTML element, an example, relevant wikimarkup and templates.

Basic[संपादन]

h1, h2, h3, h4, h5, h6[संपादन]

The <h1>...</h1> through <h6>...</h6> tags are headings for the sections with which they are associated. <h1> is used for the article title. Headings are styled thorough CSS.

Markup Renders as
<h2>Heading</h2>
<h3>Heading</h3>
Heading
Heading

Wikimarkup: Headers formatted with wikimarkup add an [edit] link.

Tag Wikimarkup Style
<h1> =heading= font size 188%; bottom border
<h2> ==heading== font size 150%; bottom border
<h3> ====heading==== font size 132%; bold
<h4> =====heading===== font size 116%; bold
<h5> ======heading====== font size 100%; bold
<h6> ========heading======== font size 80%; bold

p[संपादन]

<p>...</p> tag places content into a separate paragraph.

Markup Renders as
<p>HyperText Markup Language</p><p>HyperText Markup Language</p>

HyperText Markup Language

HyperText Markup Language

Wikimarkup: Separate paragraphs by a single blank line.

Markup Renders as
HyperText Markup Language

HyperText Markup Language

HyperText Markup Language

HyperText Markup Language

br[संपादन]

<br> or <br /> inserts a line break. Both versions of the break are supported by HTML5.

Markup Renders as
HyperText<br>Markup Language

HyperText
Markup Language

Wikimarkup: two new lines will insert one break.

Templates:

  • {{break}} adds multiple <br />.
  • {{crlf2}} adds adds a true carriage return and line feed.
  • {{-}} adds a break with styling to clear floating elements.

hr[संपादन]

<hr> represents a paragraph-level thematic break and presents as a horizontal rule.

Markup Renders as
<hr>

Wikimarkup: use ----

Markup Renders as
----


comment[संपादन]

<!-- --> formats the enclosed text as a hidden comment.

Markup Renders as
HyperText<!--Markup Language-->

HyperText

Formatting[संपादन]

abbr[संपादन]

<abbr>...</abbr> creates a tooltip to define an abbreviation or acronym that is displayed on mouse-over.

Markup Renders as
<abbr title="HyperText Markup Language">HTML</abbr>

HTML

Support: not supported by IE6 or IE7.

Template: {{abbr}}; supports Unicode display

b[संपादन]

<b>...</b> formats text stylistically offset from other text (bold) without conveying extra importance.

Markup Renders as
<b>HyperText Markup Language</b>

HyperText Markup Language

Wikimarkup: Use ''' to open and close bold text.

Markup Renders as
'''HyperText Markup Language'''

HyperText Markup Language

blockquote[संपादन]

<blockquote>...</blockquote> presents text in an offset block.

Markup Renders as
<blockquote>HyperText Markup Language</blockquote>

HyperText Markup Language

Template: {{quote}}; supports pre-formatted attribution and source parameters. For other specialized quotation templates, see Category:Quotation templates.

cite[संपादन]

<cite>...</cite> contains the title of a work. This is a new definition in HTML5— in the previous XML implementation <cite> was used to contain a citation or a reference to other sources.

Markup Renders as
<cite>HyperText Markup Language</cite>

HyperText Markup Language

code[संपादन]

<code>...</code> formats a section of computer code. MediaWiki applies CSS styling to display <code> in a monospace font.

Markup Renders as
<code>HyperText Markup Language</code>

HyperText Markup Language

Template: {{code}} uses <syntaxhighlight>.

data[संपादन]

<data>...</data> formats a machine-readable version of contents defined by the value attribute.

Markup Renders as
<data value="978-0764502149">HTML for Dummies</data>

HTML for Dummies

del[संपादन]

<del>...</del> formats deleted text.

Markup Renders as
<del>HyperText Markup Language</del>

HyperText Markup Language

dfn[संपादन]

<dfn>...</dfn> is used for indicating a definition.

Markup Renders as
<dfn>Definition</dfn>

Definition

Template: {{dfn}}

em[संपादन]

<em>...</em> represents a span of text with emphatic stress.

Markup Renders as
<em>HyperText Markup Language</em>

HyperText Markup Language

Template: {{em}}

i[संपादन]

<i>...</i> represents a span of text offset from its surrounding content without conveying any extra emphasis or importance, and for which the conventional typographic presentation is italic text.

Markup Renders as
<i>HyperText Markup Language</i>

HyperText Markup Language

Wikimarkup: Use '' to open and close italic text.

Markup Renders as
''HyperText Markup Language''

HyperText Markup Language

ins[संपादन]

<ins>...</ins> indicates a range of text that has been added. Styled as underlined text. Used on talk pages to indicate refactored text; see WP:REDACT.

Markup Renders as
<ins>HyperText Markup Language</ins>

HyperText Markup Language

kbd[संपादन]

<kbd>...</kbd> indicates user input such as keyboard input or voice commands.

Markup Renders as
Press <kbd>Enter</kbd>

Press Enter

Templates:

  • {{kbd}} applies gray styling
  • {{key press}} renders illustrated keys and keystrokes.

mark[संपादन]

<mark>...</mark> represents a run of text in one document marked or highlighted for reference purposes, due to its relevance in another context. Marked text is formatted with a yellow background by default.

Markup Renders as
<mark>HyperText Markup Language</mark>

HyperText Markup Language

<mark style="background:lightblue">HyperText Markup Language</mark>

HyperText Markup Language

pre[संपादन]

<pre>...</pre> element represents a block of preformatted text. In MediaWiki, <pre> is actually a parser tag and not HTML, but the function is the same.

Markup Renders as
<pre>HyperText Markup Language</pre>
HyperText Markup Language

HTML entities

<pre> parses HTML entities. If you want to escape this, replace & with &amp;.

Markup Renders as
<nowiki>&amp;</nowiki>

&

<nowiki>&lt;</nowiki>

<

<nowiki>&amp;amp;</nowiki>

&amp;

<nowiki>&amp;lt;</nowiki>

&lt;

Template:

  • {{pre}} wraps text that overflows the page.
  • {{pre2}} wraps or uses scrollbox.

rp, rt, ruby[संपादन]

<ruby>...</ruby> marks spans of phrasing content with ruby annotations.

<rt>...</rt> marks the ruby text component of a ruby annotation.

<rp>...</rp> is used to provide parentheses around a ruby text component of a ruby annotation, to be shown by user agents that don’t support ruby annotations.

Markup Renders as
<ruby>
東<rp>(</rp><rt>とう</rt><rp>)</rp>
京<rp>(</rp><rt>きょう</rt><rp>)</rp>
</ruby>

(とう)(きょう)

s[संपादन]

<s>...</s> is used to indicate content that is no longer accurate or relevant and that has been struck from the page. It is not not appropriate when indicating document edits; to mark a span of text as having been removed from a document, use the <del>

Markup Renders as
<s>HyperText Markup Language</s>

HyperText Markup Language

Template: {{strikethrough}}

samp[संपादन]

<samp>...</samp> indicates output from a program or computing system.

Markup Renders as
<samp><kbd>HyperText Markup Language</samp></nowiki>

HyperText Markup Language

Template: {{samp}} applies gray styling

small[संपादन]

<small>...</small> format small text.

Markup Renders as
<small>HyperText Markup Language</small>

HyperText Markup Language

strong[संपादन]

<strong>...</strong> formats a span of text with strong importance.

Markup Renders as
<strong>HyperText Markup Language</strong>

HyperText Markup Language

Templates: {{strong}}

sub[संपादन]

<sub>...</sub> formats a span of text as a subscript.

Markup Renders as
HyperText <sub>Markup Language</sub>

HyperText Markup Language

Templates:

  • {{sub}} (subscript text)
  • {{subsub}} (subscript subscript text)
  • {{ssub}} (subscript, small text)
  • {{sup}} (superscript text)
  • {{su}} (superscript
    subscript
    text)
  • {{sup sub}} (textsup
    sub
    )
  • {{e}} (1.23×104)

sup[संपादन]

<sup>...</sup> formats a span of text as a superscript.

Markup Renders as
HyperText <sup>Markup Language</sup>

HyperText Markup Language

Templates:

  • {{sub}} (subscript text)
  • {{subsub}} (subscript subscript text)
  • {{ssub}} (subscript, small text)
  • {{sup}} (superscript text)
  • {{su}} (superscript
    subscript
    text)
  • {{sup sub}} (textsup
    sub
    )
  • {{e}} (1.23×104)

time[संपादन]

<time>...</time> defines either a time (24 hour clock), or a date in the Gregorian calendar, optionally with a time and a time-zone offset.

Markup Renders as
<time>10:00</time>

u[संपादन]

<u>...</u> represents a span of text offset from its surrounding content without conveying any extra emphasis or importance, and for which the conventional typographic presentation is underlining; for example, a span of text in Chinese that is a proper name (a Chinese proper name mark), or span of text that is known to be misspelled.

Markup Renders as
<u>HyperText Markup Language</u>

HyperText Markup Language

var[संपादन]

<var>...</var> formats text in italics to indicate a variable in a mathematical expression or programming context, or placeholder text that the reader is meant to mentally replace with some other literal value.

Markup Renders as
<var>HyperText Markup Language</var>

HyperText Markup Language

Template: {{varserif}} formatted in italic serif to differentiate characters

Lists[संपादन]

Do not leave blank lines between items in a unless there is a reason to do so, since this causes the MediaWiki software to interpret each item as beginning a new list.

dl, dt, dd[संपादन]

<dl>...</dl>, <dt>...</dt> and <dd>...</dd> are used to create a definition list of group names corresponding to values. Group names are in bold and values are indented. Each group must include one or more definitions.

Markup Renders as
<dl>
<dt> Term
<dd> Definition1
<dd> Definition2
<dd> Definition3
<dd> Definition4
</dl>
Term
Definition1
Definition2
Definition3
Definition4

Wikimarkup: <dt> is created using ; while automatically enclosed in <dl>...</dl>. <dd> is created using : for each value. For a single or first value the : can be placed on the same line after ; where subsequent values must be placed on separate lines.

Markup Renders as
;Term :Definition1
:Definition2
:Definition3
:Definition4
Term
Definition1
Definition2
Definition3
Definition4

Template: {{defn}}

ol, ul, li[संपादन]

<ol>...</ol> represents an ordered list; <ul>...</ul> represents an unordered list; <li>...</li> represents a list item. See [[]].

Markup Renders as
<ul>
<li>Item1</li>
<li>Item2</li>
<li>Item3</li>
<li>Item4</li>
</ul>
  • Item1
  • Item2
  • Item3
  • Item4
<ol>
<li>Item1</li>
<li>Item2</li>
<li>Item3</li>
<li>Item4</li>
</ol>
  1. Item1
  2. Item2
  3. Item3
  4. Item4

Wikimarkup: use * for items in an unordered list and # for ordered lists.

Markup Renders as
* Item1
* Item2
* Item3
* Item4

  • Item1
  • Item2
  • Item3
  • Item4
# Item1
# Item2
# Item3
# Item4

  1. Item1
  2. Item2
  3. Item3
  4. Item4

Templates: for a variety of specialized uses, see Category:Wikipedia list formatting templates.

Sections[संपादन]

div[संपादन]

<div>...</div> is a a generic container for flow content that displays as a block element.

Markup Renders as
<div>HyperText Markup Language</div>
HyperText Markup Language

span[संपादन]

<span>...</span> is a container for flow content that displays as an inline element.

Markup Renders as
<span>HyperText Markup Language</span>

HyperText Markup Language

Tables[संपादन]

table, td, tr[संपादन]

<table>...</table> defines a table.

<tr>...</tr> defines a table row.

<td>...</td> defines a data cell with contents that may include text, links, images, lists, forms, other tables, etc.

Markup Renders as
<table border=1>
<tr>
<td>data</td>
<td>data</td>
</tr>
</table>
data data

th[संपादन]

<th>...</th> defines a table header; styled as centered and bold.

Markup Renders as
<table border="1">
<tr>
<th>Header</th>
<th>Header</th>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>data</td>
<td>data</td>
</tr>
</table>
Header Header
data data

caption[संपादन]

<caption>...</caption> adds a caption to a table.

Markup Renders as
<table border=1>
<caption>Caption</caption>
<tr>
<td>data</td>
<td>data</td>
</tr>
</table>
Caption
data data

Obsolete elements[संपादन]

These elements are now obsolete in HTML5, but still supported by browsers. These tags either have an alternate tag or a template that replaces their function with CSS.

big[संपादन]

<big>...</big> (obsolete) formats text in a larger font size.

Markup Renders as
<big>HyperText Markup Language</big>

HyperText Markup Language

Template: {{big}} uses CSS.

center[संपादन]

<center>...</center> (obsolete) is used to center text elements.

Markup Renders as
<center>HyperText Markup Language</center>
HyperText Markup Language

Template: {{center}} uses CSS.

font[संपादन]

<font>...</font> (obsolete) is used to set the font size, font face and color of text.

Markup Renders as
<font size="3" face="verdana" color="green">HyperText Markup Language</font>

HyperText Markup Language

Template: {{font}} uses CSS.

rb[संपादन]

<rb>...</rb> (obsolete) Formerly used to mark base text in a ruby annotation; use <ruby>.

strike[संपादन]

<strike>...</strike> (obsolete) formats strike-through characters; use <s> instead.

Markup Renders as
<strike>HyperText Markup Language</strike>

HyperText Markup Language

tt[संपादन]

<tt>...</tt> (obsolete) formats text in a fixed-width font. In general, use {{code}} instead.

Markup Renders as
<tt>HyperText Markup Language</tt>

HyperText Markup Language

Unsupported elements[संपादन]

These elements are not supported, but have equivalent wiki markup.

a[संपादन]

<a> is used to create links. Use the [[ ]] wikimarkup for internal links and [ ] for external links.

input[संपादन]

<input> is used to create forms. The <inputbox> extension tag is used to create a text box with a button.

Attributes[संपादन]

Most tags can have a style attribute. For example

Markup Renders as
This is <span style="color:red">red</span> text.

Most tags can have classes and IDs. They can be used in conjunction with stylesheets to give a piece of text a descriptive class (or unique identifier) and to refer to that in a stylesheet.

Markup Renders as
<div class="infobox">Example infobox</div>

Produces the box which floats on the right because infobox class is already defined in local Mediawiki:Common.css.

Classes and IDs can also be used by Javascript code, for example see how {Link FA} works in enwiki.

Classes are also widely used to create microformats. See the microformats project for more information. Some class names are reserved for use in microformats.

Another attribute example is title, for example used in {{H:title}} template: note the hover box over "20000 ft"

Markup Renders as
a height of {{h:title|6.1 km|20000 ft}} above sea level

a height of 20000 ft above sea level

HTML Tidy[संपादन]

HTML Tidy is enabled for the English Wikipedia. Tidy parses the MediaWiki output and cleans it up to ensure that valid HTML is rendered. For example, <br>, </br>, <br/>, <br.> will all render as <br />. Tidy is not enabled for MediaWiki interface pages. Tidy is not perfect, and has been known to introduce errors.

Exceptions[संपादन]

In some pages in the MediaWiki namespace (typically the short messages like button labels) HTML does not work, and e.g. <span id=abc>...</span> produces the HTML &lt;span id=abc&gt; rendered by the browser as <span id=abc>...</span>. Some others are interpreted as pure HTML (thus any tag can be used, but wikicode won't be transformed to HTML).

User and sitewide CSS and JS pages (see Help:User style) are interpreted as if inside a <pre> block.

Validation[संपादन]

The MediaWiki software attempts to catch HTML errors, but it does not catch all of them. If you use HTML in wikitext, it is helpful to verify it with the W3C Markup Validation Service.

Parser and extension tags[संपादन]

The MediaWiki software adds elements that look and act like HTML tags. Parser tags are included in MediaWiki whereas extension tags are added by optional software extensions.

Parser tags 
<gallery>, <nowiki>, <pre>, <source>
Extension tags 
<categorytree>, <charinsert>, <hiero>, <imagemap>, <inputbox>, <math>, <poem>, <ref>, <references>, <syntaxhighlight>, <timeline>

References[संपादन]

  1. Allowable elements are defined in the sanitizer.php module.

External links[संपादन]