मैंडारिन बत्तख

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मैंडारिन बत्तख
Mandarin duck
मैंडारिन बत्तख के एक ठो जोड़ा, यूके में
बैज्ञानिक वर्गीकरण
किंगडम: Animalia
फाइलम: Chordata
क्लास: Aves
ऑर्डर (Order): Anseriformes
परिवार: Anatidae
जाति (Genus): Aix
प्रजाति: A. galericulata
दूपद नाँव
Aix galericulata
(लिंनायस, 1758)

मैंडरिन बत्तख (अंग्रेजी: Mandarin duck; Aix galericulata) एक परकार के पर्चिंग बत्तख के प्रजाति हवे जे पूरब एशिया में पावल जाले आ मूल रूप से जापान के चिरई हवे। ई माझिल आकार के चिरई लगभग 41–49 सेमी (16–19 इंच) लंबाई आ 65–75 सेमी (26–30 इंच) के पाँख फइलाव वाली होखे ले। ई उत्तरी अमेरिका के जंगली बत्तख से बहुत नजदीक से संबंधित बाटे, Aix बंस से एकलौता सदस्य हवे। Aix एक ठो प्राचीन यूनान के शब्द हवे जे अरस्तू द्वारा कौनों अनजान गोताखोर चिरई खातिर इस्तेमाल कइल गइल रहल, आ galericulata एक ठो लैटिन भाषा के शब्द हवे जे नकली बार (विग) खातिर प्रयोग होला।[2]

बिबरन[संपादन करीं]

वयस्क नर एक ठो आसानी से पहिचानल जा सके वाली चिरई होले। एकर ठोर लाल रंग के आ आँख के ऊपर बड़ा सुफेद चनरमा के नियर धब्बा, ललछाहूँ चेहरा आ लटकल बार होलें। छाती पर दो गो सुफेद लम्बा धारी आ पीठ पर दू गो संतरहवा रंग के पट्टी होला। मादा के रंग चटक ना होला बलुक माटी के रंग के होला आ छाती के हिस्सा पीयराहूँ आ ठोर के नोक पीयर होले।[3]

दुन्नों के कलँगी होला बाकिर नर के कलँगी ढेर स्पष्ट होला।

म्यूटेशन[संपादन करीं]

मैंडारिन बत्तख के बंधक बना के रखले के कारण कई तरह के म्यूटेशन भइल बा। सभसे ढेर पावल जाए वाला केस सुफेद मैंडारिन बत्तख बाटे।

बिस्व में बितरण आ आवास[संपादन करीं]

The native range of the mandarin duck, and parts of its introduced range where it is established breeding
      Breeding         Native resident         Migrant         Winter visitor         Introduced resident

The species was once widespread in East Asia, but large-scale exports and the destruction of its forest habitat have reduced populations in eastern Russia and in China to below 1,000 pairs in each country; Japan, however, is thought to still hold some 5,000 pairs. The Asian populations are migratory, overwintering in lowland eastern China and southern Japan.[4]

Specimens frequently escape from collections, and in the 20th century a large feral population was established in Great Britain; more recently small numbers have bred in Ireland, concentrated in the parks of Dublin. There are now about 7,000 in Britain, and other populations on the European continent, the largest in the region of Berlin.[5] Isolated populations exist in the United States. The town of Black Mountain, North Carolina has a limited population,[6] and there is a free-flying feral population of several hundred mandarins in Sonoma County, California. This population is the result of several mandarin ducks escaping from captivity, then going on to reproduce in the wild.[3]

The habitats it prefers in its breeding range are the dense, shrubby forested edges of rivers and lakes. It mostly occurs in low-lying areas, but it may breed in valleys at altitudes of up to 1,500 मी (4,900 फीट). In winter, it additionally occurs in marshes, flooded fields, and open rivers. While it prefers freshwater, it may also be seen wintering in coastal lagoons and estuaries. In its introduced European range, it lives in more open habitat than in its native range, around the edges lakes, water meadows, and cultivated areas with woods nearby.[4]

बेहवार[संपादन करीं]

मिलन आ प्रजनन[संपादन करीं]

A female parent with ducklings in Richmond Park, London, England

In the wild, mandarin ducks breed in densely wooded areas near shallow lakes, marshes or ponds. They nest in cavities in trees close to water and during the spring, the females lay their eggs in the tree's cavity after mating. A single clutch of nine to twelve eggs is laid in अप्रैल or मई. Although the male may defend the brooding female and his eggs during incubation, he himself does not incubate the eggs and leaves before they hatch. Shortly after the ducklings hatch, their mother flies to the ground and coaxes the ducklings to leap from the nest. After all of the ducklings are out of the tree, they will follow their mother to a nearby body of water.[4]

चारा आ पालन-पोषन[संपादन करीं]

Male flying in Dublin, Ireland

Mandarins feed by dabbling or walking on land. They mainly eat plants and seeds, especially beech mast. The species will also add snails, insects and small fish to its diet.[7] The diet of mandarin ducks changes seasonally; in the fall and winter, they mostly eat acorns and grains. In the spring, they mostly eat insects, snails, fish and aquatic plants. In the summer, they eat dew worms, small fish, frogs, mollusks, and small snakes.[8] They feed mainly near dawn or dusk, perching in trees or on the ground during the day.[4]

खतरा[संपादन करीं]

Predation of the mandarin duck varies between different parts of its range. Mink, raccoon dogs, otters, polecats, Eurasian eagle owls, and grass snakes are all predators of the mandarin duck.[8] The greatest threat to the mandarin duck is habitat loss due to loggers. Hunters are also a threat to the mandarin duck, because often they are unable to recognize the mandarin in flight and as a result, many are shot by accident. Mandarin ducks are not hunted for food, however they are still poached because their extreme beauty is prized.[8]

संस्कृति में[संपादन करीं]

चीनी संस्कृति में[संपादन करीं]

युआन बंस के समय के पोर्सलीन के चायदानी, मैंडारिन बत्तख के रूप में गढ़ल।
पोर्सलीन के शराब के सुराही, किंग बंस, लग॰ 1760 ई॰

Mandarin ducks are referred to by the Chinese as Yuan-yang (सहज चीनी: 鸳鸯; परंपरागत चीनी: 鴛鴦; पिनयिन: yuān yāng), where yuan () and yang () respectively stand for male and female mandarin ducks. In traditional Chinese culture, mandarin ducks are believed to be lifelong couples, unlike other species of ducks. Hence they are regarded as a symbol of conjugal affection and fidelity, and are frequently featured in Chinese art.

A Chinese proverb for loving couples uses the mandarin duck as a metaphor: "Two mandarin ducks playing in water" (सहज चीनी: 鸳鸯戏水; परंपरागत चीनी: 鴛鴦戲水; पिनयिन: yuān yāng xì shuǐ). A mandarin duck symbol is also used in Chinese weddings because in traditional Chinese lore, they symbolize wedded bliss and fidelity. Because the male and female plumages of the mandarin duck are so unalike, yuan-yang is frequently used colloquially in Cantonese to mean an "odd couple" or "unlikely pair" – a mixture of two different types of same category. For example, the drink yuanyang and yuan-yang fried rice.

कोरियाई संस्कृति[संपादन करीं]

कोरिया के लोग खातिर, मैंडारिन बत्तख शान्ति, स्पष्टता, आ पर्याप्त संतान के चीन्हा होला। चीनी लोग के नियर उहो लोग माने ला कि बत्तख सभ जीवन खातिर मिलन करे लीं। एही कारण से एह चिरई के शादी बियाह में महत्व दिहल जाला आ कई बेर ई चिरई सभ के जोड़ा बियाह में उपहार के रूप में भी दिहल जालिन।[9]

गैलरी[संपादन करीं]

मैंडारिन बत्तख के बिबिध तस्वीर
Portrait of a male at Martin Mere, UK
Portrait of a male at Martin Mere, UK 
Mandarin drake
Mandarin drake 
Drake in eclipse plumage
Drake in eclipse plumage 
Mating couple
Mating couple 
Egg, collection of Museum Wiesbaden
Egg, collection of Museum Wiesbaden 

संदर्भ[संपादन करीं]

  1. BirdLife International (2012). "Aix galericulata". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2012: e.T22680107A40697187. Retrieved 8 अप्रैल 2016.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  2. Jobling, James A (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London: Christopher Helm. pp. 37, 169. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Shurtleff, Lawton; Savage, Christopher (1996). The Wood Duck and the Mandarin: The Northern Wood Ducks. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-20812-9.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 Madge, Steve; Burn, Hilary (1987). Wildfowl: An identification guide to the ducks, geese and swans of the world. London: Christopher Helm. pp. 188–189. ISBN 0-7470-2201-1.
  5. Blankennagel, Jens (11 जनवरी 2008). "Kunterbunte Einwanderer". Berliner Zeitung (German में). Archived from the original on 2014-08-10. Retrieved 3 फरवरी 2012.
  6. Marcus, Mike (8 फरवरी 2012). "Let's Talk About Birds: Mandarin Ducks". Pittsburgh Post Gazette. Retrieved 8 फरवरी 2012.
  7. "Mandarin Duck Fact Sheet". Lincoln Park Zoo. Archived from the original on 2014-12-17. Retrieved 2016-08-07.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 "Mandarin Duck". Honolulu Zoo. Archived from the original on 31 मई 2012. Retrieved 5 फरवरी 2012.
  9. Chira, Susan (5 October 1986). "The Happy Couple: Korean Wedding Ducks". The New York Times. Retrieved 30 June 2013.

बाहरी कड़ी[संपादन करीं]