टेम्पलेट:Infobox planet

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This template has been designed for the presentation of information on non-stellar astronomical bodies: planets (including extrasolar planets), dwarf planets, moons and minor planets. Some parameters will not be applicable to individual types; these may be omitted without any problems to the template's function.

Usage notes[संपादन]

  • This template expects that the <references /> tag will be present in articles setting the minorplanet parameter to yes. Pages without a <references /> tag will show Cite error: There are <ref> tags on this page for a group named "note", but the references will not show without a <ref group="note"> tag; see Help:Cite errors. at the bottom of the page.
  • When parameters relating to minor planets are used (e.g. mp_name), several subheadings and wikilinks within the template are made specific to minor planets. For standard formulas for computable values and sources of physical data, see Template talk:Infobox Nonstellar body#Computed values and Standard asteroid physical characteristics.
  • The Proper Orbital Element "Proper orbital period" (in Julian Years and Days) is calculated within the template from Proper Mean Motion and so does not require a parameter.
  • For bodies orbiting bodies other than the Sun, include the parameter |apsis = (appropriate suffix). This will replace various parameters' default "-helion" suffix to the suffix set by the apsis parameter. For example, setting |apsis = astron converts the labels "perihelion", "aphelion" and "Argument of perihelion" into "periastron", "apastron" and "Argument of periastron" respectively.

Recommended parameters[संपादन]

For a list of all parameters, see All parameters below.

Exosolar planets[संपादन]

खोजकर्ता discoverer
खोज के जगह discovery_site
खोज के तिथी discovered
खोज के तरीका
दूसर नाँव
परिकरमा कक्षा बिसेसता
सेमी-मेजर एक्सिस
इस्सेंट्रीसिटी eccentricity
ऑर्बिटल झुकाव inclination
कोणीय दूरी
सेमी-एम्प्लीट्यूड semi-amplitude
भौतिक लच्छन
औसत रेडियस
सतह क्षेत्रफल
आयतन volume
द्रब्यमान mass
औसत घनत्व
इनर्शिया फैक्टर के मूमेंट
अल्बेडो albedo
तापमान single_temperature
{{Infobox planet
| name               = <!--(Common/agreed name)-->
| image              = 
| caption            = 
| apsis              = astron
| discovery_ref      = <!--(Any appropriate <ref>(s) to append to the name)-->
| discoverer         = 
| discovery_site     = 
| discovered         = <!--(Date)-->
| discovery_method   = 
| alt_names          = <!--(Any alternative names for the body)-->
| periastron         = 
| apoastron          = 
| semimajor          = 
| avg_speed          = <!--(Average orbital speed)-->
| eccentricity       = 
| period             = <!--(Orbital period)-->
| inclination        = 
| angular_dist       = 
| long_periastron    = <!--(Longitude of periastron)-->
| time_periastron    = <!--(Time of periastron)-->
| semi-amplitude     = 
| mean_radius        = 
| surface_area       = 
| volume             = 
| density            = 
| mass               = 
| surface_grav       = <!--Equatorial surface gravity-->
| moment_of_inertia_factor = 
| escape_velocity    = 
| albedo             = 
| single_temperature = 

Minor planets[संपादन]

name symbol
खोजकर्ता discoverer
खोज के जगह discovery site
खोज के तिथी discovered
नाँव mp_name
दूसर नाँव
छोट-ग्रह श्रेणी
परिकरमा कक्षा बिसेसता[2]
ऍपक epoch
अपसौर aphelion
उपसौर perihelion
सेमी-मेजर एक्सिस
इस्सेंट्रीसिटी eccentricity
औसत एनामली
ऑर्बिटल झुकाव inclination
उदय संपात के देशांतर
मालुम उपग्रह satellites
प्रॉपर ऑर्बिटल एलिमेंट[3]
p_semi_major AU
प्रॉपर झुकाव
प्रॉपर औसत मोशन
360 deg / yr
1 सा
(365.25 दि)
उपसौर के अयनचलन
perihelion_rate arcsec / सा
उदय संपात के अयन चलन
node_rate आर्कसेक / सा
भौतिक लच्छन
डाइमेंशन dimensions
द्रब्यमान mass
औसत घनत्व
इनर्शिया फैक्टर के मूमेंट
साइडेरियल घुमरी काल
एक्सिस के झुकाव
ध्रुवी एक्लिप्टिक अक्षांस
ध्रुवी एक्लिप्टिक देशांतर
अल्बेडो albedo
सतही ताप. मिनि. औस. अधि.
Kelvin 150 200
Celsius −73
स्पेक्ट्रल प्रकार
एब्सोल्यूट मैग्नीट्यूड (H)]]
{{Infobox planet
| name               = 
| symbol             = 
| image              = 
| caption            = 
| discovery_ref      = <ref>....</ref>
| discoverer         = 
| discovered         = 
| discovery_site     = ''discovery_site''
| mp_name            = <!--(Minor planet name)-->
| mp_category        = <!--(Minor planet category)-->
| alt_names          = <!--(Alternative names)-->
| orbit_ref          = <ref>Osculating Orbital Elements</ref>
| epoch              = 
| aphelion           = 
| perihelion         = 
| semimajor          = 
| eccentricity       = 
| period             = 
| avg_speed          = <!--(Average orbital speed)-->
| inclination        = 
| asc_node           = <!--(Longitude of ascending node)-->
| mean_anomaly       = 
| arg_peri           = <!--(Argument of perihelion)-->
| p_orbit_ref        = <ref>Proper Orbital Elements</ref>
| p_semimajor        = 
| p_eccentricity     = 
| p_inclination      = 
| p_mean_motion      = <!--(Proper orbital mean motion)-->
| perihelion_rate    = <!--(Proper perihelic precession rate)-->
| node_rate          = <!--(Proper nodal precession rate)-->
| satellites         = 
| dimensions         = 
| mass               = 
| density            = 
| surface_grav       = <!--(Equatorial surface gravity)-->
| moment_of_inertia_factor = <!--(Moment of inertia factor)-->
| escape_velocity    = 
| sidereal_day       = 
| axial_tilt         = 
| pole_ecliptic_lat  = <!--(Pole ecliptic latitude)-->
| pole_ecliptic_lon  = <!--(Pole ecliptic longitude)-->
| albedo             = 
| temp_name1         = 
| mean_temp_1        = 
| max_temp_1         = 
| temp_name2         = 
| max_temp_2         = 
| spectral_type      = 
| abs_magnitude      = <!--(Absolute magnitude)-->

See here for means of semi-automating this template's transclusion as regards minor planets.

  • For satellites of minor planets, include the parameter |apsis = astron (see above).

Notes on usage[संपादन]

From Wikipedia:WikiProject Astronomical objects/Infoboxes

Most of these entries should be measured in SI units. Some of them, however, should have more "human-accessible" units, in addition to SI units: several such cases are indicated with a second unit name in brackets. In the case of times (orbital periods, rotation), it is best to give all periods in days for comparison purposes, and provide a translation (in parentheses) into years, days, hours, etc.; whatever is most appropriate for the duration being described.

This template is very flexible. Moons with no atmosphere whatsoever could skip the atmospheric composition section entirely, for example (though atmospheric density would still be listed). Moons also wouldn't have their orbital radii listed in AU, since AUs are such large units. For planets, use "perihelion" and "aphelion" instead of "periapsis" and "apoapsis."

In the case of "number of moons" and "is a moon of", only one of these rows will be used by any given object. There aren't any moons with moons (yet), though perhaps "co-orbital with" might be a useful row to add in a few cases.

On orbital characteristics: The orbital circumference should be computed from the semi-major axis using Ramanujan's approximation for ellipses. The ratio of that circumference to the period then gives the average orbital speed. The minimum and maximum speeds follow from Kepler's laws: and . Note that, by convention, all orbital parameters are given in the primocentric reference system (heliocentric for the planets).

On proper orbital elements: The formulae used by the template to convert from proper mean motion to proper orbital motion are:
Oyears = 360 / M   and
Odays = 365.25 x Oyears

On physical characteristics: The surface area and volume of non-spherical objects (e.g. moonlets, asteroids) must use the proper ellipsoid formulae, because even slight departures from sphericity will make a large difference, particularly for the area.

On the subject of obliquity: Obliquity is the angle between the object's axis of rotation and the normal to the plane of its orbit. Do not confuse this with the Tilt listed in the JPL pages, which is a measure of the angle between the local Laplace plane and the primary's equatorial plane. In fact, most inner moons have synchronous rotations, so their obliquities will be, by definition, zero. Outer moons simply have not been seen from close up enough to determine their true obliquities (although Phoebe, recently seen by the Cassini probe, is an exception; see Talk:Phoebe (moon) for the derivation of its obliquity).

All parameters[संपादन]

{{Infobox planet
| name                   = 
| symbol                 = <!--([[File:...]])-->
| background             = 
| image                  = <!--([[File:...]])-->
| caption                = 
| apsis                  = 
| discovery_ref          = <ref>...</ref>
| discoverer             = 
| discovery_site         = 
| discovered             = 
| discovery_method       = 
| mp_name                = 
| pronounced             = 
| named_after            = 
| mp_category            = 
| alt_names              = 
| orbit_ref              = <ref>Osculating Orbital Elements</ref>
| orbit_diagram          = <!-- image link, just like in prose. ex.: [[File:1992 TC orbital diagram.jpg|260px]] -->
| epoch                  = 
| aphelion               = 
| perihelion             = 
| periastron             = 
| apoastron              = 
| periapsis              = 
| apoapsis               = 
| semimajor              = 
| mean_orbit_radius      = 
| eccentricity           = 
| period                 = 
| synodic_period         = 
| avg_speed              = <!--(Average orbital speed)-->
| mean_anomaly           = 
| inclination            = 
| angular_dist           = <!--(Angular distance)-->
| asc_node               = <!--(Longitude of ascending node)-->
| long_periastron        = <!--(Longitude of periastron)-->
| time_periastron        = <!--(Time of periastron)-->
| arg_peri               = <!--(Argument of peri[helion/astron/...])-->
| semi-amplitude         = 
| p_orbit_ref            = <ref>Proper Orbital Elements</ref>
| p_semimajor            = 
| p_eccentricity         = 
| p_inclination          = 
| p_mean_motion          = <!--(Proper orbital mean motion)-->
| perihelion_rate        = <!--(Proper perihelic precession rate)-->
| node_rate              = <!--(Proper nodal precession rate)-->
| satellite_of           = 
| satellites             = 
| dimensions             = 
| flattening             = 
| equatorial_radius      = 
| polar_radius           = 
| mean_radius            = 
| circumference          = 
| surface_area           = 
| volume                 = 
| mass                   = 
| density                = 
| surface_grav           = <!--(Equatorial surface gravity)-->
| moment_of_inertia_factor = <!--(Moment of inertia factor)-->
| escape_velocity        = 
| sidereal_day           = 
| rot_velocity           = <!--(Rotational velocity)-->
| axial_tilt             = 
| right_asc_north_pole   = <!--(North pole right ascension)-->
| declination            = <!--(North pole declination)-->
| pole_ecliptic_lat      = <!--(Pole ecliptic latitude)-->
| pole_ecliptic_lon      = <!--(Pole ecliptic longitude)-->
| albedo                 = 
| single_temperature     = 
| temp_name1             = 
| min_temp_1             = 
| mean_temp_1            = 
| max_temp_1             = 
| temp_name2             = 
| min_temp_2             = 
| mean_temp_2            = 
| max_temp_2             = 
| spectral_type          = 
| magnitude              = <!--(Apparent magnitude)-->
| abs_magnitude          = <!--(Absolute magnitude)-->
| angular_size           = 
| pronounced             = {{IPA-en|<!-- IPA string -->|}}
| adjectives             = 
| atmosphere_ref         = <ref>...</ref>
| surface_pressure       = 
| scale_height           = 
| atmosphere_composition = 

Computed values[संपादन]

This section documents how some minor planet parameters may be computed when they're not directly measured. More detail can be found in Standard asteroid physical characteristics.

Average orbital speed[संपादन]

This is very simply the orbital circumference divided by the orbital period.

The exact circumference of an ellipse is , where a is the semi-major axis, e the eccentricity, and the function E is the complete elliptic integral of the second kind. This gives

E is close to when e is small.

An approximation using a taylor series expansion is

AstOrb Browser computes a velocity using Ramanujan's approximation for an ellipse's circumference:

Where b is the orbit's semi-minor axis:

Surface gravity[संपादन]

For a spherical body of mass m, and radius r, the gravitational acceleration at the surface, is given by

Where G = 6.6742×10−11 m3s−2kg−1 is the Gravitational constant, M is the mass of the body, and r its radius. This value is very approximate, as most minor planets are far from spherical.

For irregularly shaped bodies, the surface gravity will differ appreciably with location. However, at the outermost point/s, where the distance to the centre of mass is the greatest, the surface gravity is still given by a simple formula, a slightly modified version of the above that uses the largest radius

because all the body's mass is contained within this radius.

On a rotating body, the apparent weight experienced by an object on the surface is reduced by the centrifugal force, when one is away from the poles. The centrifugal acceleration experienced at the equator is

where T is the rotation period in seconds, and is the equatorial radius (usually also the maximum radius used above). The negative sign indicates that it acts in the opposite direction to the gravitational acceleration g.

The effective surface gravity at the equator is then

Escape velocity[संपादन]

For surface gravity g and radius r, the escape velocity is:

This value is much less sensitive to the factors affecting the surface gravity, mentioned above.


For asteroid albedo α, semimajor axis a, solar luminosity , and asteroid infrared emissivity ε (usually taken to be ~0.9), the approximate mean temperature T is given by:

Where σ is Stefan-Boltzmann constant. See also Torrence V. Johnson, Paul R. Weissman, Lucy-Ann A. McFadden (2007); Encyclopedia of the Solar System; Elsevier; p. 294; ISBN 978-0-12-088589-3. .


The HTML mark up produced by this template includes an hCard microformat, which makes the place-name and location parsable by computers, either acting automatically to catalogue article across Wikipedia, or via a browser tool operated by a person, to (for example) add the subject to an address book. For more information about the use of microformats on Wikipedia, please see the microformat project.

If the place or venue has an "established", "founded", "opened" or similar date, specific to the day, use {{start date}} (unless the date is before 1583 CE); if it has a URL, use {{URL}}.

hCard uses HTML classes including:

  • adr
  • category
  • country-name
  • extended-address
  • fn
  • label
  • locality
  • nickname
  • note
  • org
  • street-address
  • url
  • vcard

Please do not rename or remove these classes; nor collapse nested elements which use them.


  1. discovery_ref
  2. orbit_ref
  3. p_orbit_ref