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हिंदुस्तानी भाषा

विकिपीडिया से
  • हिन्दुस्तानी
  • ہندوستانی
The word Hindustani in the Devanagari and Perso-Arabic (Nastaliq) scripts
उच्चारणIPA: [ɦɪn̪d̪ʊst̪äːniː]
मूलभाषा बाटेभारतपाकिस्तान
क्षेत्रहिंदुस्तानी बेल्ट (उत्तर भारत), दक्कन, पाकिस्तान
मूल बोले वाला
ल. 250 मिलियन (2011 & 2017 जनगणना)[1]
L2 speakers: ~500 million (1999–2016)[1]
प्रारंभिक रूप
Shauraseni Prakrit
स्टैंडर्ड रूप
बोली सभ
Indian Signing System (ISS)[5]
ऑफिशियल स्टेटस
सरकारी भाषा बाटे
नियमित कइल जाले
भाषा कोड
ISO 639-1hi
ISO 639-2hin – Hindi
टेम्पलेट:ISO639-2 – Urdu
ISO 639-3Either:
hin – Hindi
urd – Urdu
Linguasphere59-AAF-qa to -qf
Areas (red) where Hindustani (Delhlavi or Kauravi) is the native language

हिंदुस्तानी उत्तरीबिचला भारतपाकिस्तान में बोलल जाए वाली भारत-आर्य भाषा हवे आ दुनों देस सभ में लिंगुआ फ्रांका के रूप में इस्तेमाल होला।[10][11] हिंदुस्तानी एगो बहुकेंद्रित भाषा ह जवना के दू गो मानक रजिस्टर बाड़ें, जिन्हन के हिंदीउर्दू के नाम से जानल जाला। एह तरीका से एकरा के हिंदी–उर्दू के नाँव से जानल जाला।[12][13][14] भाषा के बोलचाल के रजिस्टर एह मानक सभ के बीच के स्पेक्ट्रम पर आवे लें।[15][16]

हिंदुस्तानी भाषा के "एकीकरण करे वाली भाषा" भा "फ्यूजन भाषा" के रूप में अवधारणा के महात्मा गांधी द्वारा समर्थन कइल गइल।[17] हिंदी से उर्दू में बदलाव (या एकरे बिपरीत) आमतौर पर खाली दुनों लिपि सभ के बीच लिप्यंतरण से होला, बजाय अनुवाद के, जे आमतौर पर खाली धार्मिक आ साहित्यिक ग्रंथ सभ खातिर जरूरी होला।[18]

  1. Not to be confused with the Bihari languages, a group of Eastern Indo-Aryan languages.
  1. 1.0 1.1 "Hindi" L1: 322 million (2011 Indian census), including perhaps 150 million speakers of other languages that reported their language as "Hindi" on the census. L2: 274 million (2016, source unknown). Urdu L1: 67 million (2011 & 2017 censuses), L2: 102 million (1999 Pakistan, source unknown, and 2001 Indian census): Ethnologue 21. टेम्पलेट:E21. टेम्पलेट:E21.
  2. 2.0 2.1 उद्धरण खराबी:Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Grierson
  3. 3.0 3.1 उद्धरण खराबी:Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Ray2011
  4. Gangopadhyay, Avik (2020). Glimpses of Indian Languages. Evincepub publishing. p. 43. ISBN 9789390197828.
  5. Norms & Guidelines Archived 13 जनवरी 2014 at the Wayback Machine, 2009. D.Ed. Special Education (Deaf & Hard of Hearing), [www.rehabcouncil.nic.in Rehabilitation Council of India]
  6. The Central Hindi Directorate regulates the use of Devanagari and Hindi spelling in India. Source: Central Hindi Directorate: Introduction Archived 15 अप्रैल 2010 at the Wayback Machine
  7. "National Council for Promotion of Urdu Language". www.urducouncil.nic.in.
  8. Zia, K. (1999). Standard Code Table for Urdu Archived 8 अप्रैल 2019 at the Wayback Machine. 4th Symposium on Multilingual Information Processing, (MLIT-4), Yangon, Myanmar. CICC, Japan. Retrieved on 28 May 2008.
  9. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Hindustani". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  10. Mohammad Tahsin Siddiqi (1994), Hindustani-English code-mixing in modern literary texts, University of Wisconsin, ... Hindustani is the lingua franca of both India and Pakistan ...
  11. "Hindustani language". Encyclopedia Britannica. 1 November 2018. Retrieved 18 October 2021. (subscription required) lingua franca of northern India and Pakistan. Two variants of Hindustani, Urdu and Hindi, are official languages in Pakistan and India, respectively. Hindustani began to develop during the 13th century CE in and around the Indian cities of Delhi and Meerut in response to the increasing linguistic diversity that resulted from Muslim hegemony. In the 19th century its use was widely promoted by the British, who initiated an effort at standardization. Hindustani is widely recognized as India's most common lingua franca, but its status as a vernacular renders it difficult to measure precisely its number of speakers.
  12. Trask, R. L. (8 August 2019), "Hindi-Urdu", Dictionary of Historical and Comparative Linguistics, Edinburgh University Press, pp. 149–150, ISBN 9781474473316, Hindi-Urdu The most important modern Indo-Aryan language, spoken by well over 250 million people, mainly in India and Pakistan. At the spoken level Hindi and Urdu are the same language (called Hindustani before the political partition), but the two varieties are written in different alphabets and differ substantially in their abstract and technical vocabularies
  13. Crystal, David (2001), A Dictionary of Language, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, ISBN 9780226122038, (p. 115) Figure: A family of languages: the Indo-European family tree, reflecting geographical distribution. Proto Indo-European>Indo-Iranian>Indo-Aryan (Sanskrit)> Midland (Rajasthani, Bihari, Hindi/Urdu); (p. 149) Hindi There is little structural difference between Hindi and Urdu, and the two are often grouped together under the single label Hindi/Urdu, sometimes abbreviated to Hirdu, and formerly often called Hindustani; (p. 160) India ... With such linguistic diversity, Hindi/Urdu has come to be widely used as a lingua franca.
  14. Gandhi, M. K. (2018). An Autobiography or The Story of My Experiments with Truth: A Critical Edition. Translated by Desai, Mahadev. annotation by Suhrud, Tridip. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. ISBN 9780300234077. (p. 737) I was handicapped for want of suitable Hindi or Urdu words. This was my first occasion for delivering an argumentative speech before an audience especially composed of Mussalmans of the North. I had spoken in Urdu at the Muslim League at Calcutta, but it was only for a few minutes, and the speech was intended only to be a feeling appeal to the audience. Here, on the contrary, I was faced with a critical, if not hostile, audience, to whom I had to explain and bring home my view-point. But I had cast aside all shyness. I was not there to deliver an address in the faultless, polished Urdu of the Delhi Muslims, but to place before the gathering my views in such broken Hindi as I could command. And in this I was successful. This meeting afforded me a direct proof of the fact that Hindi-Urdu alone could become the lingua franca<Footnote M8> of India. (M8: "national language" in the Gujarati original).
  15. Basu, Manisha (2017). The Rhetoric of Hindutva (अंग्रेजी में). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-107-14987-8. Urdu, like Hindi, was a standardized register of the Hindustani language deriving from the Dehlavi dialect and emerged in the eighteenth century under the rule of the late Mughals.
  16. Gube, Jan; Gao, Fang (2019). Education, Ethnicity and Equity in the Multilingual Asian Context (अंग्रेजी में). Springer Publishing. ISBN 978-981-13-3125-1. The national language of India and Pakistan 'Standard Urdu' is mutually intelligible with 'Standard Hindi' because both languages share the same Indic base and are all but indistinguishable in phonology and grammar (Lust et al. 2000).
  17. "After experiments with Hindi as national language, how Gandhi changed his mind". Prabhu Mallikarjunan. The Feral. 3 October 2019.
  18. Bhat, Riyaz Ahmad; Bhat, Irshad Ahmad; Jain, Naman; Sharma, Dipti Misra (2016). "A House United: Bridging the Script and Lexical Barrier between Hindi and Urdu" (PDF) (English में). Proceedings of COLING 2016, the 26th International Conference on Computational Linguistics. Retrieved 18 October 2021. Hindi and Urdu transliteration has received a lot of attention from the NLP research community of South Asia (Malik et al., 2008; Lehal and Saini, 2012; Lehal and Saini, 2014). It has been seen to break the barrier that makes the two look different.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)