बायोम

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धरती के बायोम सभ के बर्गीकरण के एगो तरीका।

बायोम (अंगरेजी: biome; IPA: [baɪoʊm]) कौनों प्राकृतिक आवासक्षेत्र (हैबिटाट) में पावल जाए वाला बनस्पति (फ्लोरा) आ जियाजंतु (फौना) के समेकित रूप होखे लें [1]दुसरे शब्द में, बायोम एगो बिसाल इलाका होला जेकर अपने खास बनस्पति, माटी, जलवायु आ जियाजंतु सभ से पहिचान होले।[2]

बायोम के बर्गीकरण के कई गो तरीका अपनावल गइल बाड़ें; मुख्य रूप से पाँच गो बायोम प्रकार गिनावल जालें: पनिहा (एक्वाटिक), घासमैदान (ग्रासलैंड), बन, रेगिस्तान आ टुंड्रा बायोम। हालाँकि, इनहन में से कुछ के अउरियो उपप्रकार में बाँटल जा सके ला।[2] जइसे कि, एक्वाटिक बायोम के फ्रेशवाटर बायोम (मीठापानी के बायोम) आ मरीन बायोम (समुंद्री बायोम) में बाँटल जा सके ला।

Olson & Dinerstein (1998) biomes for WWF / Global 200[संपादन करीं]

Terrestrial biomes of the world according to Olson et al. and used by the WWF and Global 200.

A team of biologists convened by the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) developed a scheme that divided the world's land area into biogeographic realms (called "ecozones" in a BBC scheme), and these into ecoregions (Olson & Dinerstein, 1998, etc.). Each ecoregion is characterized by a main biome (also called major habitat type).[3][4]

This classification is used to define the Global 200 list of ecoregions identified by the WWF as priorities for conservation.[3]

For the terrestrial ecoregions, there is a specific EcoID, format XXnnNN (XX is the biogeographic realm, nn is the biome number, NN is the individual number).

Biogeographic realms (terrestrial and freshwater)[संपादन करीं]

The applicability of the realms scheme above - based on Udvardy (1975)—to most freshwater taxa is unresolved.[5]

Biogeographic realms (marine)[संपादन करीं]

Biomes (terrestrial)[संपादन करीं]

  1. Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests (tropical and subtropical, humid)
  2. Tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forests (tropical and subtropical, semihumid)
  3. Tropical and subtropical coniferous forests (tropical and subtropical, semihumid)
  4. Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests (temperate, humid)
  5. Temperate coniferous forests (temperate, humid to semihumid)
  6. Boreal forests/taiga (subarctic, humid)
  7. Tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands (tropical and subtropical, semiarid)
  8. Temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands (temperate, semiarid)
  9. Flooded grasslands and savannas (temperate to tropical, fresh or brackish water inundated)
  10. Montane grasslands and shrublands (alpine or montane climate)
  11. Tundra (Arctic)
  12. Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub or sclerophyll forests (temperate warm, semihumid to semiarid with winter rainfall)
  13. Deserts and xeric shrublands (temperate to tropical, arid)
  14. Mangrove (subtropical and tropical, salt water inundated)[4]

Biomes (freshwater)[संपादन करीं]

According to the WWF, the following are classified as freshwater biomes:[7]

Biomes (marine)[संपादन करीं]

Biomes of the coastal and continental shelf areas (neritic zone):

Summary of the scheme[संपादन करीं]

Example:

संदर्भ[संपादन करीं]

  1. "The world's biomes". www.ucmp.berkeley.edu. Archived from the original on 2008-12-04. Retrieved 2008-11-25. is a large collection of flora and fauna occupying a major habitat.
  2. 2.0 2.1 "The Five Major Types of Biomes". nationalgeographic.org (in English). National Geographic Society. 22 सितंबर 2020. Retrieved 26 जनवरी 2022.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Olson, D. M. & E. Dinerstein (1998). The Global 200: A representation approach to conserving the Earth’s most biologically valuable ecoregions. Conservation Biol. 12:502–515, [1] Archived 2016-10-07वेबैक मशीन पर ..
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Olson, D. M., Dinerstein, E., Wikramanayake, E. D., Burgess, N. D., Powell, G. V. N., Underwood, E. C., D'Amico, J. A., Itoua, I., Strand, H. E., Morrison, J. C., Loucks, C. J., Allnutt, T. F., Ricketts, T. H., Kura, Y., Lamoreux, J. F., Wettengel, W. W., Hedao, P., Kassem, K. R. (2001). Terrestrial ecoregions of the world: a new map of life on Earth. Bioscience 51(11):933–938, [2] Archived 2012-09-17वेबैक मशीन पर ..
  5. Abell, R., M. Thieme, C. Revenga, M. Bryer, M. Kottelat, N. Bogutskaya, B. Coad, N. Mandrak, S. Contreras-Balderas, W. Bussing, M. L. J. Stiassny, P. Skelton, G. R. Allen, P. Unmack, A. Naseka, R. Ng, N. Sindorf, J. Robertson, E. Armijo, J. Higgins, T. J. Heibel, E. Wikramanayake, D. Olson, H. L. Lopez, R. E. d. Reis, J. G. Lundberg, M. H. Sabaj Perez, and P. Petry. (2008). Freshwater ecoregions of the world: A new map of biogeographic units for freshwater biodiversity conservation. BioScience 58:403–414, [3] Archived 2016-10-06वेबैक मशीन पर ..
  6. Spalding, M. D. et al. (2007). Marine ecoregions of the world: a bioregionalization of coastal and shelf areas. BioScience 57: 573–583, [4] Archived 2016-10-06वेबैक मशीन पर ..
  7. "Freshwater Ecoregions of the World: Major Habitat Types" "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-10-07. Retrieved 2008-05-13.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link). Accessed May 12, 2008.
  8. WWF: Marine Ecoregions of the World Archived 2009-02-07वेबैक मशीन पर .