Jump to content


विकिपीडिया से

The purpose of this template is to indicate that a span of text belongs to a particular language. It often makes no visible changes to the text, but can prompt web browsers to use a more appropriate font, or screen readers to use a particular kind of pronunciation, and so on. See § Rationale for more information.

Syntax and usage[संपादन करीं]

     {{lang|language tag|text}}

The language tag should consist of an ISO 639 language code. The template supports properly formatted IETF language tags using subtags that identify the language's script, region, and/or variant. The ISO 639 language code is a two- or three-letter abbreviation, in lowercase, of the language's name. French, for example, has the code fr:

  • She said: "{{lang|fr|Je suis française.}}" → She said: "Je suis française."

Because all languages represented by two-letter codes in ISO 639‑1 can also be represented by their three-letter equivalents in ISO 639‑2 and above, it is recommended to use the shortest language tag possible that sufficiently describes the target language.[1] So while French could be represented by 639‑2's fra code, use the 639‑1 code fr instead. Likewise, script, region, and variant information should be included only when they provide a necessary distinction. For an up-to-date list of available language, script, region, and variant codes, please refer to the IANA's language subtag registry.

By default, this template will place articles into the relevant subcategory of श्रे:Articles containing non-English-language text. To suppress this – e.g. when using {{lang}} within a wikilink or the title parameter of a citation – add the parameter |nocat=true.

Formatting[संपादन करीं]

Automatic italics[संपादन करीं]

{{lang}} automatically applies italic styling when the text in {{{1}}} is written entirely in the Latn script:
{{lang|fr|Je suis française.}}Je suis française.
''{{lang|fr|Je suis française.}}''Je suis française. – external markup is ignored

When Latn script should not be italicized, there are multiple approaches:

|italic=no – renders {{{1}}} in upright font; external italics markup is ignored; internal italic marup causes an error message:
{{lang|fr|Je suis française.|italic=no}}Je suis française.
''{{lang|fr|Je suis française.|italic=no}}''Je suis française.
''{{lang|fr|Je suis ''française''.|italic=no}}''[Je suis française.] Error: {{Lang}}: text has italic markup (help) – italic markup in conflict with |italic=no
|italic=unset – disables template-provided styling; {{{1}}} is styled according to external or internal wiki markup:
{{lang|fr|Je suis française.|italic=unset}}Je suis française.
''{{lang|fr|Je suis française.|italic=unset}}''Je suis française.
{{lang|fr|''Je suis'' English.|italic=unset}}Je suis English.
{{noitalic}} can also be used:
{{lang|fr|Je suis {{noitalic|English}}.}}Je suis English.

Language-specific templates[संपादन करीं]

There are language-specific versions of this template, such as {{lang-fr}} and {{lang-ru}}, which are intended to be used the first time a language appears in an article. These templates will print the language's name and, when appropriate, italicize their content:

  • A '''kremlin''' ({{lang-ru|кремль}}, 'castle') is a major fortified central complex ... → A kremlin (रूसी: кремль, 'castle') is a major fortified central complex ...

While {{lang-xx}} templates output text in italics for languages with Latin-based scripts, if plain text is required, such as for proper names, |italic=no or {{noitalic}} may be used:

  • the border town of Ventimiglia ({{lang-fr|Vintimille}}) → the border town of Ventimiglia (फ्रेंच: Vintimille)
  • the border town of Ventimiglia ({{lang-fr|italic=no|Vintimille}}) → the border town of Ventimiglia (फ्रेंच: Vintimille)
  • the border town of Ventimiglia ({{lang-fr|{{noitalic|Vintimille}}}}) → the border town of Ventimiglia (फ्रेंच: Vintimille)

When formatting foreign-language text to match style guidelines, it is best to exclude the styling markup from the template, so that any extraneous markup which is not from the foreign language does not receive incorrect metadata for that language. This includes: English-language quotation marks around titles of works in languages that use other quotation character glyphs; italicization of titles in languages which do not use that convention; and emphasis that is not found (in one style or another) in the original foreign text; among other cases. If in doubt, put such markup outside the template when possible.

Right-to-left languages[संपादन करीं]

To embed a string of right-to-left text (such as Arabic or Hebrew) within the usual left-to-right context, |rtl=yes should be added to correctly communicate writing direction. For convenience, the {{rtl-lang}} template accomplishes the same result by automatically including |rtl=yes. To markup a whole paragraph of right-to-left text, {{rtl-para}} should be used instead.

Any of these approaches will wrap the text in a container with the dir="rtl" attribute. In order to ensure correct rendering in browsers that do not fully support HTML 5 bidirectional isolation, a left-to-right mark is also added to the end of the text (see the W3C for details).

Note that text direction does not need to be specified when using the {{lang-xx}} templates, as this is implied by the template's language. Therefore there is no {{rtl-lang-ar}}, only {{lang-ar}}.

Parameters[संपादन करीं]

lang supported parameters
parameter definition yields to alias
code IETF language tag for the content in text {{{1}}}
text non-English text {{{2}}}
rtl yes indicates that the writing system used for the content in text is right-to-left; accepted values are: no (default), yes IETF script subtag in code (if provided)
italic see table "lang |italic= parameter operation"; accepted values are: yes, no, unset, default italics
size specifies font size of the content in text; use a value suitable for use with the CSS font-size property; this should almost always be a relative value supplied in % or em units, not a fixed px value.
nocat yes inhibits automatic categorization; accepted values are: no (default), yes
lang |italic= parameter operation
|italic= value description example code result html markup
  • parameter not present;
  • parameter present, not set;
  • invalid value
  • module applies style from:
  •   auto-italics or
  •   script subtag latn;
  • else inherits from external markup;
  • invalid values treated as default
{{lang|ru|тундра}} тундра <span title="रूसी-language text"><span lang="ru">тундра</span></span>
{{lang|ru|tûndra}} tûndra <span title="रूसी-language text"><i lang="ru">tûndra</i></span>
Incorrect markup; this requires |ru-latn.
{{lang|fr|toundra}} toundra <span title="फ्रेंच-language text"><i lang="fr">toundra</i></span>
{{lang|ru-latn|tûndra}} tûndra <span title="रूसी-language text"><i lang="ru-Latn">tûndra</i></span>
default {{lang|ru|тундра|italic=default}} тундра <span title="रूसी-language text"><span lang="ru">тундра</span></span>
{{lang|fr|toundra|italic=default}} toundra <span title="फ्रेंच-language text"><i lang="fr">toundra</i></span>
{{lang|ru-latn|tûndra|italic=default}} tûndra <span title="रूसी-language text"><i lang="ru-Latn">tûndra</i></span>
  • module applies upright style;
  • overrides auto-italics
  • overrides script subtag latn;
  • overrides external markup
{{lang|ru|тундра|italic=no}} тундра <span title="रूसी-language text"><span lang="ru" style="font-style: normal;">тундра</span></span>
{{lang|fr|toundra|italic=no}} toundra <span title="फ्रेंच-language text"><span lang="fr" style="font-style: normal;">toundra</span></span>
{{lang|ru-latn|tûndra|italic=no}} tûndra <span title="रूसी-language text"><span lang="ru-Latn" style="font-style: normal;">tûndra</span></span>
''{{lang|fr|toundra|italic=no}}'' toundra ''<span title="फ्रेंच-language text"><span lang="fr" style="font-style: normal;">toundra</span></span>''
  • module applies italic style;
  • ignores auto-italics;
  • ignores script subtag latn
{{lang|ru|тундра|italic=yes}} тундра <span title="रूसी-language text"><i lang="ru">тундра</i></span>
{{lang|ru-latn|tûndra|italic=yes}} tûndra <span title="रूसी-language text"><i lang="ru-Latn">tûndra</i></span>
  • module applies no style;
  • inherits style from external markup;
  • disables auto-italics
  • overrides script subtag latn;
{{lang|ru|тундра|italic=unset}} тундра <span title="रूसी-language text"><span lang="ru">тундра</span></span>
''{{lang|ru|тундра|italic=unset}}'' тундра ''<span title="रूसी-language text"><span lang="ru">тундра</span></span>''
{{lang|ru-latn|tûndra|italic=unset}} tûndra <span title="रूसी-language text"><span lang="ru-Latn">tûndra</span></span>
''{{lang|ru-latn|tûndra|italic=unset}}'' tûndra ''<span title="रूसी-language text"><span lang="ru-Latn">tûndra</span></span>''

Indicating writing script[संपादन करीं]

If necessary, an ISO 15924 script code can be appended to a language code to indicate the use of a specific script. For instance, Tajik (tg) is a language which can be found written in Arabic (Arab), Latin (Latn), and Cyrillic (Cyrl) scripts, making it necessary to always specify which script is in use. In such a case, taking care to preserve the script code's capitalization, we could end up with the following code (language tags in bold):

  • Tajik ({{rtl-lang|tg-Arab|تاجیکی}}, ''{{lang|tg-Latn|toçikī}}'', {{lang|tg-Cyrl|тоҷикӣ}})
Tajik (تاجیکی, toçikī, тоҷикӣ)

Many languages, however, are so commonly written in one particular script that specifying the script is unnecessary. Russian, for instance, is almost exclusively written in Cyrillic, so there is no need to specify ru-Cyrl, just as en-Latn would be unnecessary for English. The subtag registry contains up-to-date information on which languages have script codes that should be "suppressed".

Transliteration[संपादन करीं]

To mark a language which has been transliterated from one script into another, append the new script's code to the code of the original language. So if transliterating from Russian Cyrillic to a Latin script, the language tag on the transliteration would be ru-Latn. If the transliteration scheme is known, and listed as a "variant" in the subtag registry, it can be appended after any script and region codes. For example, Chinese transliterated into a Latin script using the pinyin system would be zh-Latn-pinyin. As a convenience for transliterating to Latin scripts, and to work around browser styling issues with some language and script combinations, {{transl}} may be used in place of {{lang}}:

  • Moscow ({{lang|ru|Москва́}}, ''{{transl|ru|Moskva}}'')
Moscow (Москва́, Moskva)

To specify a transliteration scheme, such as the ISO transliteration standard for Cyrillic, use {{transl|ru|ISO|Moskva}}.

Undetermined language[संपादन करीं]

The {{lang}} template is not only used to specify the language of foreign words, but can also be used to specify a single symbol or character in a script, unrelated to any specific language. Many times the character or symbol is used in several languages, but when the article refers to the grapheme itself, the ISO 639‑2 language code und, for Undetermined language, should be used:

  • The {{lang|und-Hani|字}} Han character has 6 strokes.
The Han character has 6 strokes.

Han characters are used in Chinese, Japanese, sometimes Korean, and formerly Vietnamese, and in this case the character is not used for any specific language. Note that the script code used is Hani, which specifies generic Han characters (Hanzi, Kanji, Hanja).

Compare {{script}} usage:

  • The {{script|Hani|字}} Han character has 6 strokes.
The Han character has 6 strokes.

Indicating regional variant[संपादन करीं]

When it is necessary to indicate region-specific language, an ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 country code, or UN M.49 region code, should be added to the language tag, taking care to preserve capitalization. For example, Portuguese (pt) as used in Brazil (BR) could be represented as pt-BR, and Spanish as used in Latin America as es-419.

Additionally, language, script, and region codes can all appear in the same tag. For instance, the code zh-Hant-TW should be used for Chinese text written with Traditional Han characters, containing words or expressions specific to Taiwan:

  • Taiwan ({{lang|zh-Hant-TW|臺灣}}, ''{{transl|zh|Táiwān}}'')
Taiwan (臺灣, Táiwān)

Rationale[संपादन करीं]

Applying styles[संपादन करीं]

Registered users can apply custom CSS styles to articles by placing style declarations in their user style sheet. The user style sheet can be created at Special:Mypage/common.css. For more information, see Help:User style. The following examples should work in most modern browsers, but not in Internet Explorer 8 or earlier, which lack support for attribute selectors.

To apply a specific font to all text marked as Russian of any script or region:

span[lang|=ru] { font-family: fonteskaya; }

To apply a specific font to text marked simply as Russian:

span:lang(ru) { font-family: fonteskaya; }

To apply a color to all text marked with any language:

span[lang] { color: green; }

Do not use quotation marks in your user style sheet; they may be misinterpreted as wikitext. While they are recommended in CSS, they are required only for font families containing generic-family keywords ('inherit', 'serif', 'sans-serif', 'monospace', 'fantasy', and 'cursive'). See the W3C for more details.

You can combine this with font imports in your user stylesheet, for example, to show all German text in Fraktur and all Urdu in Noto Nastaliq Urdu Regular:

@import url(https://fonts.googleapis.com/css?family=UnifrakturMaguntia);
@import url(http://fonts.googleapis.com/earlyaccess/notonastaliqurdudraft.css);

:lang(de) {
   font-family: UnifrakturMaguntia;
   font-style: normal;
   font-weight: normal;

:lang(ur) {
    font-family: Noto Nastaliq Urdu Regular, Noto Nastaliq Urdu;

then the following wikitext will look like the image below:

Victor jagt zwölf Boxkämpfer quer über den Sylter Deich

{{lang|de|Victor jagt zwölf Boxkämpfer quer über den Sylter Deich}}

ٹھنڈ میں، ایک قحط زدہ گاؤں سے گذرتے وقت ایک چڑچڑے، باأثر و فارغ شخص کو بعض جل پری نما اژدہے نظر آئے۔

{{lang|ur|ٹھنڈ میں، ایک قحط زدہ گاؤں سے گذرتے وقت ایک چڑچڑے، باأثر و فارغ شخص کو بعض جل پری نما اژدہے نظر آئے۔}}

Tracking categories[संपादन करीं]

Articles that have errors are placed in:

श्रे:lang and lang-xx template errors (mainspace only)

Maintenance categories:

श्रे:Lang and lang-xx code promoted to ISO 639-1

TemplateData[संपादन करीं]

This is the TemplateData documentation for this template used by VisualEditor and other tools.

TemplateData for Lang

Indicate that a given span of text belongs to a particular language. Allows browsers to correctly present and pronounce foreign languages.

Template parameters[Edit template data]

This template prefers inline formatting of parameters.

Language tag1 code

A language tag, or an ISO 639 language code.

Text2 text

The text belonging to the language specified.

Je suis française.
Right to leftrtl

Indicates that the language should be displayed from right to left.

Italiciseitalic italics

default, yes, no, unset


sets font-size

120%, 1.2em

no description


इहो देखल जाय[संपादन करीं]

References[संपादन करीं]

  1. "Language tags in HTML and XML" at World Wide Web Consortium
  2. Heilmann, Chris (13 Mar 2008). "Yahoo! search results now with natural language support". Yahoo! Developer Network Blog. Archived from the original on 25 Jan 2009. Retrieved 28 Feb 2015. {{cite web}}: Unknown parameter |dead-url= ignored (help)
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Ishida, Richard (18 November 2014). "Why use the language attribute?". World Wide Web Consortium. Retrieved 1 Mar 2015.
  4. "6.4 Ligatures: the font-variant-ligatures property". CSS Fonts Module Level 3 W3C Candidate Recommendation 3 October 2013.

External links[संपादन करीं]