"अंग्रेजी खातिर आइपीए" की अवतरण में अंतर

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(अंग्रेजी से नकल कइ के बनावल गइल)
 
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Throughout Wikipedia, the pronunciation of words is indicated by means of the '''[[International Phonetic Alphabet]] (IPA)'''. The following tables list the IPA symbols used for English words and pronunciations. Please note that several of these symbols are used in ways that are specific to Wikipedia and differ from those used by dictionaries.
 
If the IPA symbols are not displayed properly by your browser, see the [[#See also|links below]].
 
{{Compact ToC|a=|o=|e=|u=|i=|d=|h=|t=|n=|s=|p=|y=|f=|g=|c=|r=|l=|q=|j=|k=|x=|b=|m=|w=|v=|z=|name=no|center=no|top=no|seealso=yes|notes=yes|extlinks=yes|custom1=Key|custom2=Dialect variation|custom3=Other transcriptions}}
 
==Key==
If the words illustrating two symbols sound the same to you (say, if you pronounce ''cot'' and ''caught'' the same, or ''do'' and ''dew'', or ''marry'' and ''merry''), you can ignore the difference between those symbols. Footnotes explain some of these mergers. (See also [[#Dialect variation|Dialect variation]] below.)
 
For a table listing all spellings of these sounds, see {{section link|English orthography|Sound-to-spelling correspondences}}. For help converting spelling to pronunciation, see {{section link|English orthography|Spelling-to-sound correspondences}}.
 
{| style="background:none"
| style="vertical-align:top" |
{| class="wikitable" style="text-align:center; width:90%"
! colspan="2"| [[Consonant]]s
|-
! style="width:3em" | IPA !! Examples
|-
| {{big|{{IPA|b}}}}
| style="text-align: left" | '''b'''uy, ca'''b'''
|-
| {{big|{{IPA|d}}}}
| style="text-align: left" |'''d'''ye, ca'''d''', '''d'''o
|-
| {{big|{{IPA|ð}}}}
| style="text-align: left" |'''th'''y, brea'''the''', fa'''th'''er
|-
| {{big|{{IPA|dʒ}}}}
| style="text-align: left" |'''g'''iant, ba'''dge''', '''j'''am
|-
| {{big|{{IPA|f}}}}
| style="text-align: left" |'''f'''an, ca'''ff''', '''ph'''i
|-
| {{big|{{IPA|ɡ}}}} ({{IPA|ɡ}})<ref>If the two characters {{angle bracket|{{IPA|ɡ}}}} and {{angle bracket|{{IPA|[[File:Opentail g.svg|6px]]}}}} do not match and if the first looks like a {{angle bracket|{{IPA|γ}}}}, then you have an issue with your default font. See [[WP:IPA#Rendering issues|Rendering issues]].</ref>
| style="text-align: left" |'''g'''uy, ba'''g'''
|-
| {{big|{{IPA|h}}}}
| style="text-align: left" |'''h'''igh, a'''h'''ead
|-
| {{big|{{IPA|hw}}}}
| style="text-align: left" |'''wh'''y<ref>The phoneme {{IPA|/hw/}} is not distinguished from {{IPA|/w/}} in the many dialects with the [[Phonological history of wh#Wine–whine merger|wine–whine merger]], such as RP and most varieties of GenAm. For more information on this sound, see [[voiceless labio-velar approximant]].</ref>
|-
| {{big|{{IPA|j}}}}<ref>The IPA value of the letter {{angle bracket|{{IPA|j}}}} is counter-intuitive to many English speakers. However, it does occur with this sound in a few English words: Besides [[hallelujah]], there's [[Jägermeister]] and [[jarlsberg cheese]].</ref>
| style="text-align: left" |'''y'''es, hallelu'''j'''ah
|-
| {{big|{{IPA|k}}}}
| style="text-align: left" |s'''k'''y, '''c'''ra'''ck'''
|-
| {{big|{{IPA|l}}}}
| style="text-align: left" | {{Not a typo|'''l'''ie, s'''l'''y, ga'''l'''}}
|-
| {{big|{{IPA|m}}}}
| style="text-align: left" |'''m'''y, s'''m'''ile, ca'''m'''
|-
| {{big|{{IPA|n}}}}
| style="text-align: left" |'''n'''igh, s'''n'''ide, ca'''n'''
|-
| {{big|{{IPA|ŋ}}}}
| style="text-align: left" |sa'''ng''', si'''n'''k, si'''ng'''er
|-
| {{big|{{IPA|θ}}}}
| style="text-align: left" |'''th'''igh, ma'''th'''
|-
| {{big|{{IPA|p}}}}
| style="text-align: left" | {{Not a typo|'''p'''ie, s'''p'''y, ca'''p'''}}
|-
| {{big|{{IPA| r}}<ref>In most varieties of English, {{IPA|/r/}} is pronounced as an approximant {{IPA|[ɹ]}}. Although the IPA symbol {{IPA|[r]}} represents a [[alveolar trill|trill]], {{IPA|/r/}} is widely used instead of {{IPA|/ɹ/}} in broad transcriptions of English.</ref>}}
| style="text-align: left" |'''r'''ye, t'''r'''y, ve'''r'''y
|-
| {{big|{{IPA|s}}}}
| style="text-align: left" |'''s'''igh, ma'''ss'''
|-
| {{big|{{IPA|ʃ}}}}
| style="text-align: left" |'''sh'''y, ca'''sh''', emo'''ti'''on
|-
| {{big|{{IPA|t}}}}
| style="text-align: left" | {{Not a typo|'''t'''ie, s'''t'''y, ca'''t''', a'''t'''om}}
|-
| {{big|{{IPA|tʃ}}}}
| style="text-align: left" |'''ch'''ina, ca'''tch'''
|-
| {{big|{{IPA|v}}}}
| style="text-align: left" | {{Not a typo|'''v'''ie, ha'''ve'''}}
|-
| {{big|{{IPA|w}}}}
| style="text-align: left" |'''w'''ye, s'''w'''ine
|-
| {{big|{{IPA|z}}}}
| style="text-align: left" |'''z'''oo, ha'''s'''
|-
| {{big|{{IPA|ʒ}}}}
| style="text-align: left" |equa'''ti'''on, plea'''s'''ure, vi'''si'''on, bei'''g'''e<ref>A number of English words, such as ''genre'' and ''garage'', are pronounced with either {{IPA|/ʒ/}} or {{IPA|/dʒ/}}.</ref>
|-
! colspan="2" | Marginal consonants
|-
| {{big|{{IPAlink|x}}}}
| style="text-align: left" |u'''gh''', lo'''ch''', '''Ch'''anukah<ref>In most dialects, {{IPA|/x/}} is replaced by {{IPA|/k/}} in most words, including ''loch''. Where the sound begins a word, such as ''Chanukah'', it is sometimes replaced with {{IPA|/h/}}. In ''ugh'', it is often replaced by {{IPA|/ɡ/}} (a [[spelling pronunciation]]).</ref>
|-
| {{big|{{IPA|[[Glottal stop|ʔ]]}}}}
| style="text-align: left" |uh'''-'''oh {{IPA|/ˈʔʌʔoʊ/}}
|-
| colspan="4" style="border-left: #fff solid 1px; border-right: #fff solid 1px" | &nbsp;
|-
! colspan="2" | Optional sounds
|-
! IPA !! Examples
|-
| {{big|{{IPA|ʃⁱ}}}}
| colspan="3" style="text-align: left" |nastur'''ti'''um (/i/ is frequently dropped)
|}
 
| style="vertical-align: top" |
{| class="wikitable" style="text-align:center"
! colspan="4"| [[Vowel]]s
|-
! IPA !! Full vowels !! IPA !! ... followed by R<ref> In [[Rhotic and non-rhotic accents|non-rhotic accents]] like RP, {{IPA|/r/}} is not pronounced unless followed by a vowel. In some Wikipedia articles, {{IPA|/ɪər/}} ''etc.'' may not be distinguished from {{IPA|/ɪr/}} ''etc.'' These should be fixed to correspond with the chart here.</ref>
|-
| {{big|{{IPA|ɑː}}}}
| style="text-align: left" | {{sc|p'''a'''lm}}, f'''a'''ther, br'''a'''
| {{big|{{IPA|ɑr}}}}
| style="text-align: left" | {{sc|st'''ar'''t}}, b'''ar'''d, b'''ar'''n, sn'''ar'''l, st'''ar''' <small style="white-space: nowrap">(= {{IPA|/ɑːr/}})
|-
| {{big|{{IPA|ɒ}}}}
| style="text-align: left" | {{sc|l'''o'''t}}, p'''o'''d, J'''o'''hn<ref>{{IPA|/ɒ/}} is not distinguished from {{IPA|/ɑː/}} in dialects with the [[Phonological history of English low back vowels#Father–bother merger|father–bother merger]] such as GenAm.</ref>
| {{big|{{IPA|ɒr}}}}
| style="text-align: left" |m'''or'''al, f'''or'''age
|-
| {{big|{{IPA|æ}}}}
| style="text-align: left" | {{sc|tr'''a'''p}}, p'''a'''d, b'''a'''n<ref>Some regions, such as New York City and Philadelphia, separate this into two phonemes, {{IPA|/æ/}} and {{IPA|/eǝ/}}, so that the vowel in ''crash'' may be closer to that in ''mail'' than that in ''cat''. In other dialects, such as [[General American]], the two sounds are allophones. See [[Phonological history of English short A#/æ/ tensing|/æ/ tensing]].</ref><ref>In some regions, what would normally be {{IPA|[æŋ]}} or {{IPA|[æɡ]}}<!-- Californian English has raising before /ŋ/ but maybe not before /ɡ/; Upper Midwest has it before both. --> is pronounced as {{IPA|[eŋ]}} or {{IPA|[eɪŋ]}}, {{IPA|[eɡ]}} or {{IPA|[eɪɡ]}}, so that the ''a'' in ''rang'' and ''rag'' is closer to the ''ai'' in ''rain'' than the ''a'' in ''rat''.</ref>
| {{big|{{IPA|ær}}}}
| style="text-align: left" |b'''arr'''ow, m'''arr'''y<ref>{{IPA|/ær/}} is pronounced the same as {{IPA|/ɛr/}} in accents with the [[Mary–marry–merry merger]].</ref>
|-
| rowspan="2" | {{big|{{IPA|aɪ}}}}
| rowspan="2" style="text-align: left" | {{sc|pr'''i'''ce}}, r'''i'''de, f'''i'''le, f'''i'''ne, p'''ie'''<ref>Many speakers, for example in most of Canada and much of the United States, have a different vowel in ''price'' and ''ride''. Generally, an {{IPA|[aɪ]}} is used at the ends of words and before voiced sounds, as in ''ride, file, fine, pie,'' while an {{IPA|[ʌɪ]}} is used before voiceless sounds, as in ''price'' and ''write''. Because {{IPA|/t/}} and {{IPA|/d/}} are often conflated in the middle of words in these dialects, derivatives of these words, such as ''rider'' and ''writer'', may be distinguished only by their vowel: {{IPA|[ˈɹʷ'''aɪ'''ɾəɹ], [ˈɹʷ'''ʌɪ'''ɾəɹ]}}. However, even though the value of {{IPA|/aɪ/}} is not predictable in some words, such as ''spider'' {{IPA|[ˈsp'''ʌɪ'''ɾəɹ]}},{{fact}} dictionaries do not generally record it, so it has not been allocated a separate transcription here.</ref>
| {{big|{{IPA|aɪər}}}}
| style="text-align: left" |'''Ire'''land, h'''ire''' <small style="white-space: nowrap">(= {{IPA|/aɪr/}})</small>
|-
| {{big|{{IPA|aɪ.ər}}}}
| style="text-align: left" |h'''igher''', b'''uyer'''<ref name=hire>Some speakers pronounce ''higher, flower, lawyer, layer'' (stratum) and ''mayor'' with two syllables, and ''hire, flour, loir, lair'' and ''mare'' with one. Others pronounce them the same.</ref>
|-
| rowspan="2" | {{big|{{IPA|aʊ}}}}
| rowspan="2" style="text-align: left" | {{sc|m'''ou'''th}}, l'''ou'''d, f'''ou'''l, d'''ow'''n, h'''ow'''
| {{big|{{IPA|aʊər}}}}
| style="text-align: left" |fl'''our''' <small style="white-space: nowrap">(= {{IPA|/aʊr/}})</small>
|-
| {{big|{{IPA|aʊ.ər}}}}
| style="text-align: left" |fl'''ower'''<ref name=hire/>
|-
| {{big|{{IPA|ɛ}}}}
| style="text-align: left" | {{sc|dr'''e'''ss}}, b'''e'''t, f'''e'''ll, m'''e'''n{{refn|name="E"| {{IPA|/ɛ/}} is transcribed as {{IPA|/e/}} by many dictionaries.<ref group=ref>{{cite web|last1=Wells|first1=John|title=e and ɛ|url=http://phonetic-blog.blogspot.com.au/2009/03/e-and.html|website=John Wells’s phonetic blog|publisher=Blogspot|accessdate=13 March 2015|date=18 March 2009}}</ref>}}
| {{big|{{IPA|ɛr}}}}
| style="text-align: left" |'''err'''or, m'''err'''y<ref name="E" />
|-
| rowspan="2" | {{big|{{IPA|eɪ}}}}
| rowspan="2" style="text-align: left" | {{sc|f'''a'''ce}}, m'''a'''de, f'''ai'''l, v'''ei'''n, p'''ay'''
| {{big|{{IPA|ɛər}}}}
| style="text-align: left" | {{sc|squ'''are'''}}, m'''are''', sc'''ar'''ce, c'''air'''n, M'''ar'''y <small style="white-space: nowrap">(= {{IPA|/eɪr/}})</small>{{refn|{{IPA|/ɛər/}} is pronounced the same as {{IPA|/ɛr/}} in accents with the [[Mary–marry–merry merger]]. It is often transcribed as {{IPA|/eə/}} by British dictionaries and as {{IPA|/er/}} by American ones. The OED uses {{IPA|/ɛː/}} for BrE and {{IPA|/ɛ(ə)r/}} for AmE.<ref name=oed-key group=ref>{{cite web|title=Key to pronunciation|url=http://public.oed.com/how-to-use-the-oed/key-to-pronunciation/|website=Oxford English Dictionary|publisher=Oxford University Press|accessdate=13 March 2015}}</ref>}}
|-
| {{big|{{IPA|eɪ.ər}}}}
| style="text-align: left" |l'''ayer''' ''(one who lays)''<ref name=hire/>
|-
| {{big|{{IPA|ɪ}}}}
| style="text-align: left" | {{sc|k'''i'''t}}, l'''i'''d, f'''i'''ll, b'''i'''n
| {{big|{{IPA|ɪr}}}}
| style="text-align: left" |m'''irr'''or, S'''ir'''ius
|-
| rowspan="2" | {{big|{{IPA|iː}}}}
| rowspan="2" style="text-align: left" | {{sc|fl'''ee'''ce}}, s'''ee'''d, f'''ee'''l, m'''ea'''n, s'''ea'''
| {{big|{{IPA|ɪər}}}}
| style="text-align: left" | {{sc|n'''ear'''}}, b'''ear'''d, f'''ier'''ce, s'''er'''ious <small style="white-space: nowrap">(= {{IPA|/iːr/}})</small><ref>{{IPA|/ɪər/}} is pronounced the same as {{IPA|/ɪr/}} in accents with the [[mirror–nearer merger]].</ref>
|-
| {{big|{{IPA|iː.ər}}}}
| style="text-align: left" |fr'''eer'''
|-
| rowspan="2" | {{big|{{IPA|ɔː}}}}
| rowspan="2" style="text-align: left" | {{sc|th'''ough'''t}}, M'''au'''d, d'''aw'''n, f'''a'''ll, str'''aw'''<ref>{{IPA|/ɔː/}} is not distinguished from {{IPA|/ɒ/}} (except before {{IPA|/r/}}) in dialects with the [[Phonological history of English low back vowels#Cot–caught merger|cot–caught merger]] such as some varieties of GenAm.</ref>
| {{big|{{IPA|ɔr}}}}
| style="text-align: left" | {{sc|n'''or'''th}}, b'''or'''n, w'''ar''', L'''aur'''a <small style="white-space: nowrap">(= {{IPA|/ɔːr/}})</small><ref name="horse-hoarse">{{IPA|/ɔər/}} is not distinguished from {{IPA|/ɔr/}} in dialects with the [[English-language vowel changes before historic r#Horse–hoarse merger|horse–hoarse merger]], which include most dialects of modern English.</ref><ref name="pour-poor">{{IPA|/ʊər/}} is not distinguished from {{IPA|/ɔr/}} in dialects with the [[English-language vowel changes before historic r#Pour–poor merger|pour–poor merger]], including many younger speakers.</ref>
|-
| {{big|{{IPA|ɔː.ər}}}}
| style="text-align: left" | s'''awer'''
|-
| rowspan="2" | {{big|{{IPA|ɔɪ}}}}
| rowspan="2" style="text-align: left" | {{sc|ch'''oi'''ce}}, v'''oi'''d, f'''oi'''l, c'''oi'''n, b'''oy'''
| {{big|{{IPA|ɔɪər}}}}
| style="text-align: left" |[[wikt:loir|l'''oir''']] <small style="white-space: nowrap">(= {{IPA|/ɔɪr/}})</small>
|-
| {{big|{{IPA|ɔɪ.ər}}}}
| style="text-align: left" |empl'''oyer'''<ref name=hire/>
|-
| rowspan="2" | {{big|{{IPA|oʊ}}}}
| rowspan="2" style="text-align: left" | {{sc|g'''oa'''t}}, c'''o'''de, f'''oa'''l, b'''o'''ne, g'''o'''<ref>{{IPA|/oʊ/}} is commonly transcribed {{IPA|/əʊ/}} or {{IPA|/oː/}}.</ref>
| {{big|{{IPA|ɔər}}}}
| style="text-align: left" | {{sc|f'''or'''ce}}, m'''ore''', b'''oar''', '''or'''al <small style="white-space: nowrap">(= {{IPA|/oʊr/}})</small><ref name="horse-hoarse"/><ref name="pour-poor"/>
|-
| {{big|{{IPA|oʊ.ər}}}}
| style="text-align: left" |m'''ower'''
|-
| {{big|{{IPA|ʊ}}}}
| style="text-align: left" | {{sc|f'''oo'''t}}, g'''oo'''d, f'''u'''ll, w'''o'''man
| {{big|{{IPA|ʊr}}}}
| style="text-align: left" |c'''our'''ier
|-
| rowspan="2" | {{big|{{IPA|uː}}}}
| rowspan="2" style="text-align: left" | {{sc|g'''oo'''se}}, f'''oo'''d, f'''oo'''l, s'''oo'''n, ch'''ew''', d'''o'''
| {{big|{{IPA|ʊər}}}}
| style="text-align: left" |b'''oor''', m'''oor''', t'''our'''ist <small style="white-space: nowrap">(= {{IPA|/uːr/}})</small><ref name="horse-hoarse"/><ref name="pour-poor"/>
|-
| {{big|{{IPA|uː.ər}}}}
| style="text-align: left" |tr'''uer'''
|-
| rowspan="2" | {{big|{{IPA|juː}}}}
| rowspan="2" style="text-align: left" |c'''u'''te, m'''u'''le, p'''u'''ny, b'''eau'''ty, h'''u'''ge, '''you''', t'''u'''ne<ref>In dialects with [[yod dropping]], {{IPA|/juː/}} is pronounced the same as {{IPA|/uː/}} after [[coronal consonant]]s ({{IPA|/t/}}, {{IPA|/d/}}, {{IPA|/s/}}, {{IPA|/z/}}, {{IPA|/n/}}, {{IPA|/θ/}}, and {{IPA|/l/}}) in the same syllable, so that ''dew'' {{IPA|/djuː/}} is pronounced the same as ''do'' {{IPA|/duː/}}. In dialects with [[yod coalescence]], {{IPA|/tj/}}, {{IPA|/dj/}}, {{IPA|/sj/}} and {{IPA|/zj/}} are pronounced {{IPA|/tʃ/}}, {{IPA|/dʒ/}}, {{IPA|/ʃ/}} and {{IPA|/ʒ/}}, so that the first syllable in ''Tuesday'' is pronounced the same as ''choose''.</ref>
| {{big|{{IPA|jʊər}}}}
| style="text-align: left" |c'''ure''' <small style="white-space: nowrap">(= {{IPA|/juːr/}})</small>
|-
| {{big|{{IPA|juː.ər}}}}
| style="text-align: left" |f'''ewer'''
|-
| rowspan="2" | {{big|{{IPA|ʌ}}}}
| rowspan="2" style="text-align: left" | {{sc|str'''u'''t}}, b'''u'''d, d'''u'''ll, g'''u'''n<ref>{{IPA|/ʌ/}} is not used in the dialects of the northern half of England, some bordering parts of Wales, and some broad eastern Ireland accents. These words would take the {{IPA|ʊ}} vowel: there is no [[Phonological history of English high back vowels#Foot–strut split|foot–strut split]].</ref>
| {{big|{{IPA|ɜr}}}}
| style="text-align: left" | {{sc|n'''ur'''se}}, w'''or'''d, g'''ir'''l, f'''er'''n, f'''urr'''y
|-
| {{big|{{IPA|ʌr}}}}
| style="text-align: left" |h'''urr'''y, n'''our'''ish (in the UK)
|-
|-
! colspan="4" | Variable vowels
|-
| {{big|{{IPA|aː}}}}
| style="text-align: left" | {{sc|b'''a'''th}}, d'''a'''nce, l'''au'''gh <small style="white-space: nowrap">(either {{IPA|ɑː}} or {{IPA|æ}})</small>
| {{big|{{IPA|ɒː}}}}
| style="text-align: left" | {{sc|cl'''o'''th}}, '''o'''ffice, wr'''o'''ng <small style="white-space: nowrap">(either {{IPA|ɒ}} or {{IPA|ɔː}})</small>
|-
| {{big|{{IPA|i}}}}
| style="text-align: left" | {{sc|happ'''y'''}}, ser'''i'''ous<ref>{{IPA|/i/}} is pronounced {{IPA|[i]}} in dialects with the [[Phonological history of English high front vowels#Happy tensing|happy tensing]], {{IPA|[ɪ]}} in other dialects. British convention used to transcribe it with {{angle bracket|{{IPA|ɪ}}}}, but the OED and other influential dictionaries recently converted to {{angle bracket|{{IPA|i}}}}.</ref> <small style="white-space: nowrap">(either {{IPA|ɪ}} or {{IPA|i}})</small>
| {{big|{{IPA|u}}}}
| style="text-align: left" |bedr'''oo'''m, r'''oo'''f, sit'''u'''ation <small style="white-space: nowrap">(either {{IPA|ʊ}} or {{IPA|uː}})</small>
|-
! colspan="4" | [[Vowel reduction in English| reduced vowels]]
|-
| {{big|{{IPA|ə}}}}
| style="text-align: left" | Ros'''a'''’s, '''a'''&nbsp;mission, qui'''e'''t, foc'''u'''s
| {{big|{{IPA|ər}}}}
| style="text-align: left" | {{sc|lett'''er'''}}, p'''er'''ceive
|-
| {{big|{{IPA|ɨ}}}}
| style="text-align: left" | ros'''e'''s, '''e'''mission{{refn|{{IPA|/ɨ/}} is pronounced {{IPA|[ə]}} in Australian and many US dialects, {{IPA|[ɪ]}} in Received Pronunciation. Many speakers freely alternate between a reduced {{IPA|[ɪ̈]}} and a reduced {{IPA|[ə]}}. The [[Oxford English Dictionary|OED]] uses the pseudo-IPA symbol {{angle bracket|{{IPA|<s>ɪ</s>}}}},<ref name=oed-key group=ref/> and [[Merriam–Webster]] uses {{angle bracket|{{IPA|ə̇}}}}.{{fact|reason=The sign ⟨ə̇⟩ is nowhere to be found in Merriam-Websters pronunciation guide, see [http://www.merriam-webster.com/help/]|date=2015-05-27}}}} <small style="white-space: nowrap">(either {{IPA|ɪ}} or {{IPA|ə}})</small>
| {{big|{{IPA|ʉ}}}}
| style="text-align: left" |beautif'''u'''l, curric'''u'''lum {{nowrap|({{IPA|[jʉ]}})}}{{refn|{{IPA|/ʉ/}} is pronounced {{IPA|[ʊ]}} in many dialects, {{IPA|[ə]}} in others. Many speakers freely alternate between a reduced {{IPA|[ʊ̈]}} and a reduced {{IPA|[ə]}}. The [[Oxford English Dictionary|OED]] uses the pseudo-IPA symbol {{angle bracket|{{IPA|<s>ʊ</s>}}}}.<ref name=oed-key group=ref/>}} <small style="white-space: nowrap">(either {{IPA|ʊ}} or {{IPA|ə}})</small>
|-
| {{big|{{IPA|ɵ}}}}
| style="text-align: left" |'''o'''mission{{refn|{{IPA|/ɵ/}} is pronounced as {{IPA|[ə]}} in many dialects, and {{IPA|[ɵw]}} or {{IPA|[əw]}} before another vowel, as in ''c'''o'''operate.'' Sometimes pronounced as a full {{IPA|/oʊ/}}, especially in careful speech.<ref group=ref>{{citation|last=Bolinger|first=Dwight|year=1989|title=Intonation and Its Uses:Melody in Grammar and Discourse|publisher=Stanford University Press|isbn=0-8047-1535-1}}</ref> Usually transcribed as {{IPA|/ə(ʊ)/}} (or similar ways of showing variation between {{IPA|/oʊ/}} and {{IPA|/ə/}}) in British dictionaries.}} <small style="white-space: nowrap">(either {{IPA|oʊ}} or {{IPA|ə}})</small>
| {{big|{{IPA|əl}}}}
| style="text-align: left" |bott'''le''' <small style="white-space: nowrap">(either {{IPA|əl}} or {{IPA|l̩}})</small>
|-
| {{big|{{IPA|ən}}}}
| style="text-align: left" |butt'''on''' <small style="white-space: nowrap">(either {{IPA|ən}} or {{IPA|n̩}})</small>
| {{big|{{IPA|əm}}}}
| style="text-align: left" | rhyth'''m''' <small style="white-space: nowrap">(either {{IPA|əm}} or {{IPA|m̩}})</small>
|-
| colspan="4" style="border-left: #fff solid 1px; border-right: #fff solid 1px" | &nbsp;
|-
! colspan="2" | [[Stress (linguistics)|Stress]]
! colspan="2" | [[Syllabification]]
|-
! IPA !! Examples
! IPA !! Examples
|-
| {{big|{{IPA|ˈ}}}}
| rowspan="2" style="text-align: left" | {{nowrap|'''in'''to'''na'''tion {{nowrap| {{IPA|/ˌɪntɵˈneɪʃən/}},}}{{refn|It is arguable that there is no phonemic distinction in English between primary and secondary stress,<ref group=ref>
{{citation|last=Ladefoged|first=Peter|year=1993|title=A Course in Phonetics|edition=3rd|location=Orlando |publisher=Harcourt Brace |isbn=0-15-507319-2}}</ref> but it is conventional to notate them as here.}}}} <br>'''bat'''tleship {{IPA|/ˈbætəlʃɪp/}}<ref>Full vowels following a stressed syllable, such as the ''ship'' in ''battleship,'' are marked with secondary stress in some dictionaries (Merriam-Webster), but not in others (the OED). Such syllables are not actually stressed.</ref>
| rowspan="2" | {{big|{{IPA|.}}}}
| rowspan="2" style="text-align: left" |[[moai]] {{nowrap| {{IPA|/ˈmoʊ.aɪ/}}}}<br>[[Windhoek]] {{nowrap| {{IPA|/ˈvɪnt.hʊk/}}}}<br>[[Vancouveria]] {{nowrap| {{IPA|/væn.kuːˈvɪəriə/}}}}<br>Mikey {{IPA|/ˈmaɪki/}}, [[Myki]] {{nowrap| {{IPA|/ˈmaɪ.kiː/}}}}<ref>Syllables are indicated sparingly, where necessary to avoid confusion, for example to break up sequences of vowels (''moai'') or consonant clusters which an English speaker might misread as a [[digraph (orthography)|digraph]] (''Vancouveria, Windhoek'').<br>Several dictionaries, such as the OED, do not indicate stress for words of one syllable. Thus ''hire'' {{IPA|/ˈhaɪər/}} is transcribed {{angbr|{{IPA|haɪə(r)}}}}, without a stress mark, contrasting with ''higher'' {{IPA|/ˈhaɪ.ər/}}, which is transcribed {{angbr|{{IPA|ˈhaɪə(r)}}}}, without a syllable mark.</ref>
|-
| {{big|{{IPA|ˌ}}}}
|}
|}
 
'''Notes'''
* The IPA stress mark ({{IPA|ˈ}}) comes ''before'' the syllable that has the stress, in contrast to stress marking in [[Pronunciation respelling for English|pronunciation keys of some dictionaries published in the United States]].
* Words in {{sc|small capitals}} are the standard [[Lexical set#Wells Standard Lexical Sets for English|lexical sets]]. Words in the lexical sets {{sc|bath}} and {{sc|cloth}} may be given two transcriptions, respectively one with {{IPA|/ɑː/}} and one with {{IPA|/æ/}}, or one with {{IPA|/ɒ/}} and one with {{IPA|/ɔː/}}, rather than with the variable-vowel symbols in the key above.
 
==Dialect variation==
{{main|International Phonetic Alphabet chart for English dialects}}
This key represents [[diaphoneme]]s, abstractions of speech sounds that accommodate <!--"standard ... English ... pronunciations" is not OK, so "English" alone is not OK-->[[General American]] (GenAm), [[Received Pronunciation]] (RP), [[Canadian English]], [[South African English|South African]], [[Australian English phonology|Australian]], and [[New Zealand English|New Zealand]] pronunciations. Therefore, not all of the distinctions shown here are relevant to a particular dialect:
* If, for example, you pronounce ''cot'' {{IPA|/ˈkɒt/}} and ''caught'' {{IPA|/ˈkɔːt/}} the same, then you may simply ignore the difference between the symbols {{IPA|/ɒ/}} and {{IPA|/ɔː/}}, just as you ignore the distinction between the written vowels ''o'' and ''au'' when pronouncing them.
* In many dialects, {{IPA|/r/}} occurs only before a vowel; if you speak such a dialect, simply ignore {{IPA|/r/}} in the pronunciation guides where you would not pronounce it, as in ''cart'' {{IPA|/ˈkɑrt/}}.
* In other dialects, {{IPA|/j/}} ('''y'''es) cannot occur after {{IPA|/t, d, n/}}, etc., within the same syllable; if you speak such a dialect, then ignore the {{IPA|/j/}} in transcriptions such as ''new'' {{IPA|/njuː/}}. For example, ''New York'' is transcribed {{IPA|/njuː ˈjɔrk/}}. For most people from England and for some New Yorkers, the {{IPA|/r/}} in {{IPA|/ˈjɔrk/}} is not pronounced; for most people from the United States, including some New Yorkers, the {{IPA|/j/}} in {{IPA|/njuː/}} is not pronounced and may be ignored.
 
On the other hand, there are some distinctions which you might make but which this key does not encode, as they are seldom reflected in the dictionaries used as sources for Wikipedia articles:
* The difference between the vowels of ''fir'', ''fur'' and ''fern'', maintained in [[Scottish English|Scottish]] and [[Hiberno-English|Irish English]] but lost elsewhere.
* The difference between the vowels of ''pain'' and ''pane'' found in some English, Welsh, and Newfoundland dialects.
* The vowels of ''bad'' and ''had'', distinguished in many parts of [[Australian English|Australia]] and the Eastern United States.
* The vowels of ''spider'' and ''spied her'', distinguished in Scotland and some parts of North America.
 
Other words may have different vowels depending on the speaker.
 
The pronunciation of the {{IPA|/æ/}} vowel in Scotland, Wales and northern England has always been closer to {{IPAblink|a}}, even amongst educated speakers. BBC English is moving away from the older RP {{IPAblink|æ}} towards the more open vowel {{IPAblink|a}}, and the Oxford English Dictionary transcribes the ''lad'', ''bad'', ''cat'', ''trap'' vowel as {{IPA|/a/}} in its updated entries.
 
For more extensive information on dialect variations, you may wish to see the [[International Phonetic Alphabet chart for English dialects|IPA chart for English dialects]].
 
==Other transcriptions==
If you feel it is necessary to add a pronunciation respelling using another convention, then please use the conventions of [[Wikipedia:Pronunciation respelling key|Wikipedia's pronunciation respelling key]].
* To compare the following IPA symbols with non-IPA American dictionary conventions that may be more familiar, see [[pronunciation respelling for English]], which lists the pronunciation guides of fourteen English dictionaries published in the United States.
* To compare the following IPA symbols with other IPA conventions that may be more familiar, see [[Help:IPA conventions for English]], which lists the conventions of eight English dictionaries published in Britain, Australia, and the United States.
 
==See also==
* If your browser does not display IPA symbols, you probably need to install a font that includes the IPA. Good free IPA fonts include [[Gentium]] and [[Charis SIL]] (more complete); a monospaced font is [[Everson Mono]] which is complete; download links can be found on those pages.
* For a guide to adding pronunciations to Wikipedia articles, see the {{tl|IPA}} template.
* For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see [[Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation#Entering IPA characters]].
* [[Wikipedia:Pronunciation respelling key]]
 
==Notes==
{{Reflist|30em}}
 
==References==
{{Reflist|group=ref}}
 
==External links==
* [http://www.personal.psu.edu/ejp10/blogs/gotunicode/2008/09/getting-jaws-61-to-recognize-e.html Getting JAWS 6.1 to recognize "exotic" Unicode symbols]—For help on getting the [[screen reader]] [[JAWS (screen reader)|JAWS]] to read IPA symbols
* [http://www.johntantalo.com/blog/ipa-tts-bookmarklet/ IPA TTS (text-to-speech) bookmarklet]
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